DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PRODUCT EXPIRY ALERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF SHOPRITE, ENUGU)
This project is aimed at developing an alert system which notifies shop owners and managers of products/inventory which are about to expire. Faced with the challenges shop owners face with loses and health hazards brought about by expired products, the researcher aimed at developing a product/Inventory Expiration system that manages product expiration in a computerized manner.
The Product expiration management system notifies/alerts the store manager on products expiring soon for prompt attention and decision. The system was built with PHP, MYSQL and Bootstrap Technologies.
Products are considered as the business resources for the organization. This includes managing the product with appropriate way to review any time as per the requirement. Therefore, it is important to have a web-basedProduct Expiration System which has the ability to generate reports, report products expiry dates, maintain the balance of the stock, details about the purchase and sales in the organization, which helps to minimize loses to the business or negative health hazards to consumers. These web application can be used by large or small business organizationfor the management of their stock in the production houses. After analyzing the other Product Expirationsystems, we decided to include some of common and key features that should be included in every Product Expiration system.The Product Expiration System is a complete web-based application designed with HTML, CSS and PHP technology. The main aim of the project is to develop Product Expiration System Model software in which all the information regarding the stock of the organization will be presented. It is an internet based application which has admin component to manage the inventory and maintenance of the inventory system. This application is based on the management of stock of an organization. The application contains general organization profile, sales details, Purchase details and expiration dates presented in the organization. There is a provision of updating the inventory also.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To develop the easy management of the inventory.
2. To handle the inventory details like purchase details, manufacturer details and expiration dates of Products.
3. To maintain a record of batches of product brought to the store.
4. To keep a record of product brought to the store.
5. To detect about to expire and expired products in the store.
6. To calculate the loss on expired products.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Health hazards to consumers and huge loss to businesses have been the major challenges posed by expired products. Manually taking stock of products by small scale/medium scale business owners are still prone to human errors. When consumers are exposed to expired products, they may have various health challenges ranging from stomach upsets to food poisoning (which may result to death).
Apart from law suits the shop owner may face, he/she will be losing money if the products in the store expires without his/her notice.
These challenges are the main reasons the researcher sought to develop a computerized system that notifies shop owners and managers of impending products that are about to expire. This system is significant in the sense that it will curb loses and prevent health hazards to consumers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To develop a web Product Expiration system to assist business owners take stock and regulate product expiring dates,solves the tedious work and activities in calculating and taking stocks of large product for large business owners in which they end up missing expiry dates, mis-calculating and discarding some important figures, with this Inventory system, business owners can now take stock, check product expiration dates, calculate their products left with just a click.
The system can aid Shop owners and managers make prompt and informed decisions of products that are about to expire. Clearance sales, Immediate Consumption of Products, Gifting of Product etc. could be good measures that can be taken to minimize loss to the business or prevent health hazards to consumers.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Product Expiration System is targeted to the small or medium organization which doesn’t have proper records of their products, also for those organization that deals with products that expire, a proper system to keep track of product expiration is important.
The study will focus primarily on Shoprite Mall Enugu.
1. 6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Inventory - a complete list of items such as property, goods in stock, or the contents of a building/ warehouse.
Stock - The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a shop or warehouse and available for sale or distribution.
Product- an article or substance that or is manufactured refined for sale.
Expiring date-date ofshelf life of a product.Might still be safe, but quality is no longer guaranteed.
Web application – A web application is a computer application program that utilizes web browsers and web technology to perform takes over the internet.
Transaction - an instance of buying or selling something.
2.1 DRUGS EXPIRATION AND CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF EXPIRY DATE
Product expiration is a problem which commonly affects Manufacturing Industries in Nigeria. According to Farrugia (2005), expiry date is defined as an assurance that a drug product should meet applicable standards of identity, strength, quality and purity at the time of use. Farrugia (2005) further indicated that the definition is only applicable under storage conditions specified by the manufacturer on the labeling and packaging. Nakyanzi et al. (2010) maintained that the medicinal supply chain process needs to be managed to avoid wastage, pilferage, misuse, and expiry in developing countries where budgets are tight. According to Thron et al. (2007) higher inventory add to the average age of the product and that lead to more expired products. Tumwine et al. (2010) reported that expired Product stock is a waste of resources, which cannot be afforded in a resource-constrained nation. Poor quantification practices and donors ordering large quantities of Product without the departmental inputs contributed to large quantities of expired Product in Uganda (Tumwine et al., 2010). Patients usually perceive the expiration date as an important indicator of the drug’s quality, short-dated drug products lessen patients’ interest which indicates that demand is related to the remainder of shelf life (Hug et al., 2005). Antai and Mutshinda (2010) supported the view that pharmaceutical chains continuously have to move drug products back and forth between pharmacies and manufacturers because of the expiry dates attached to the delivered Product. Antai and Mutshinda (2010) further indicated that expiration of Product randomly occur in pharmaceutical inventory.
2.2 CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF MEDICALS SUPPLY
Mustaffa and Potter (2009) reported that awareness of the supply chain management within hospitals is low and managers are not properly equipped to control the supply of medication. Due to the severity of using expired or ineffective Product, it is critical that pharmaceutical outlets get the reverse logistics right from the start and the most common causes of returns in pharmaceutical outlets are expired Product and recalls (Kumar et al., 2009). Since most clinical decisions involve products management and medical supplies, supply chain activities have an important role in effective and efficient service delivery in hospitals (Bendavid et al., 2010). Bhakoo and Chan (2011) indicated that pharmaceutical products have long development cycles and this presents a challenge for supply chain managers in hospitals who have to manage their internal relationships with medical practitioners while simultaneously managing their external relationships with pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesalers and distributors. Huq et al. (2004) maintained that organization may experience a partial loss of revenues when their inventory gets close to expiration date and customers become less likely to purchase products with short expiry date. Vries and Huijsman (2011) stated that in healthcare sector, the basic rationale of a supply chain management approach is founded in the belief that intensive co-ordination and integration between pharmaceuticals, medical devices and patient flow might lead to a better health supply chain performances..