CONSTRUCTION OF THE SIMPLE DC CHARGER (USING MULTISM 8.1)
A simple dc charger is an electronic device use in recharging a cells when they rundown. The device is a capable of converting high AC voltage from the means to a low and desirable dc voltage with a steady output for effectiveness of our cell phones laptops and all other gargets that require dc voltage for their operation. As it is study to by irechargeable a battery and replace and it is cumbersome to be carrying substituted around, therefore there is a very high need for a dc charger. The aim of this very project is to built a simple dc charger. With the increase in the phone and other garget capacity the demand for high power consumption is necessary, so the need of high voltage battery which in terms require high capacitive DC charger to back up the effective running of it is continuous upgrading gargets in terms at power consumption. It is estimated that nearly everybody from five years and above have personal communication (phone) garget and other dc demanding gargets which are death in the absence of charger. The construction of this derive have been able to expose use to how to build our personal phone chargers with ease irrespective of our educational level attained and field of specialty. The ability to vary current and voltages to be use exactly as specified by the gargets manufacturer is available. This project is conducted using a computer system (laptop or desktop) installed with an application called multism but it can also be done using other electrical simulators like protus, B2-SPICE. When the application is lunch “an icon” by name “common parts’ is selected to display the available device for the construction; after the selection of the devices, the selected devices are arrange in such a way that it will allow for lowest connectivity with other devices. Then the cursor is taken to the left top most part of the design space and click on wire with this simple/to change the arrow heard to a connection pointer. The pointer the give chance for connection as it allow for a click and drag extension of wire from one terminal a device to a terminal of another devices for current flow from device to devices across the circuit. Furthermore, after a proper connection has been made a cross the circuit. The cursor is moved to click on a simulation icon or press F4 on the keyboard for the simulation to start properly but if there is any error click on the error or by icon to identify the error that cause obstruction to the simulation and then correct it with ease and rerun the program or design to simulate it. Moreover, after the simulation values will come up on the multimeters on the screen showing the values of currents, voltages at different points respectively. for further variation a scale is selected on the graphical section of the program to plot a graph of output current against out resistance and the graph shows that the load resistance is inversely proportional to the current at constant voltage. The steadiness at the output voltage is the function of the zener diode by giving out only its specified voltage only. The variation in current and resistance gives hence for the design of dc chargers with different current requirement to match the space of different electronic garget as they are produce with different specs. Conclusively, these project have been able to produce a well measure and tested current schematic diagram for effectiveness to avoid explosion and electric shock while testing. It reduce the cost of buying devices for circuit testing. It also reduce the cost price of dc chargers in market as the cost of transportation is reduce and sometime remove as it is homemade with high degree of durability.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - ii
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - iv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Apparatus - - - - - - - - 3
1.3 Methods - - - - - - - - - 3
CHAPTER TWO: DISCUSSION OF RESULT
2.1 Discussion of Result - - - - - - 6
2.2 Rectifier - - - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER THREE: HOW RECTIFIER WORKS
3.1 How Rectifier Works - - - - - - 8
3.2 The Filter Circuit - - - - - - - 8
CHAPTER FOUR: THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
4.1 The Voltage Regulator - - - - - - 9
4.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 11
The purpose of this project is to design of a simple dc charger. The several sketches are included in each ease for clear understanding. This discuss on how to meet the criteria given in the project outline. The charger could be suitable for phone charging and any other rechargeable batteries for long time without damage.
With the increase in the phone capacity and high power consumption, so they need high voltage battery which inturns require high capacitive DC charger to back up the efficient running of this upgrade in electronic gadgets in terms of power consumption. It is estimate that nearly everybody from 5 years and above has their personal communication gargets (phone) there are death in the absence of charger.
Normally charger is an integral part of a phone which work in consumption with the AC maims supply. But what happens if year cell phone gasps far for power in the middle of a journey, probably when you are driving or biking on the middle of the highway?
The construction of a simple reasonable and effective AC to DC cell phone charger will be discussed in this article which can be easily built at home even by a layman to recharge their phones and it also give chance for current variation. The ability to very current makes it applicably to different electronic gadgets according to their respective current requirement. The accurate measurement of output current it after have advantage cover the static types in the live of electronics.
We all know the general specs of a cell phone battery is around 3.7 volts and 800AH it means the cell phone world require at around 4.5 volts to 5 volts for initiatory the charging process.
However, a Li-ion battery which is employed inside cell phones are pretty sensitive to bad voltages and may just low off causing serious differ and proper issues. Keeping them in mind the cell phone internal current is specifically diminuend very strictly. The parameters just won’t permit only voltage which may be even slightly out of the range of the battery specifications.
The use of zener diode in the circuit answers the above issue just perfectly, such that charging voltage of its output becomes ideally suitable for charging the cell phone battery. A high voltage resistor connected at the output of the voltage regulator make sure that the current to the cell phone battery stays within the specified ranges.
The apparatus used is mentioned below:
1. A computer system (installed with an application called multism 8.1)
STEP 1: The computer system is switch on (boot)
STEP 2: The computer system is directed to where we have the application called multism
STEP 3: On getting to the environment click on the icon new page on the menu bar to open a new page for design
STEP 4: Click on device family on the tool bar and paste it on the design space.
STEP 5: Step 4 is done repeated to select the require device and paste on the design space
STEP 6: The selected devices are arrange on the design space as shown in figure 1.0 to suit the desired design.
STEP 7: The cursor is controlled to click on wire on the tool bar to change the around head of the cursor to a wire connection head.
STEP 8: Click on the terminals of the devices and drag to another terminal and double click for connect icon.
STEP 9: Step eight is repeated on all other devices for a complete and effective electron flow. As shown on figure 1.1.
STEP 10: Click on the simulation icon to start the simulation proper.
STEP 11: Vary resistor (R1) to take value of resistance and the value of current in the ohmmeter and the ammeter respectively to form the table..