EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NATIONAL SECURITY
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study
While the international order among states is quite strong, the world is not peaceful. In the wake of globalization and the explosion in communication technologies, new security related threats have Emerged that are to a great extent independent of national boundaries. As a result, a new kind of war is being waged in every country all over the world; this is because the primary threats to national security have changed fundamentally. They no longer spring from territorial and ideological disputes among nation states but from how far globalization, technological threats and criminal networks have grown to challenge nation states (Zalur & Zeckhauser 2002). In Nigeria today, conflict seem persistent and intractable, moreover after a decade of complacency, we seem to be finally grasping the fact that we are fighting for survival under the shadow of catastrophic dangers. Hence, discussions on Nigerian National Security concept has evolved rapidly because the security environment in which we live is dynamic and uncertain, replete with a host of threats and challenges which are trans-national in nature that have potential to grow more deadly (Pandya & Laipon, 2008:39). Emerging scenario of these trans-national threats which are irrespective of national border and which comprises of a list of different risk factors that seem unending spanning from different trans-national crimes like terrorism, human and drug trafficking, money laundering etc, to widespread environmental degradation, diseases, climate change and even political policies which might threaten our nation’s sovereignty (Brainard & Halon, 2004), has further challenged the concept of national security which now pertains to people rather than territories on one hand and development rather than military on the other hand. Now, the notion of national security captures the traditional security and human security. National security is now perceived as total security – security of life and property, security of the economy and the economic resource areas of the country, security of food and raw materials resources, of general health of the people, of environment and national integrity, and preservation of all that society considers to be important and valuable (Imobighe, 2000). Globalization and increased technology has led to the decline of our borders which has led to the increased vulnerability of Nigeria to there threats and endanger our national security. The Nigeria – Benin border, which is located in the west of our country, is particularly notorious for all sorts of illegal trans-border activities. For this reason, this research work will attempt to discuss Human and drug trafficking, smuggling of goods and arms proliferation and the dangers they pose to Nigerian national security because these activities are the most common across the Nigeria – Benin border. The dilemmas that Nigeria faces with insecurities call for critical investigation of border entry points whether they are performing their strategic functions (Willie, 2008).
1.2 statement of the problem Globalization, have important security implications. Most dangerously, a variety of threats have become global in scope and more serious in their effects as a result of the spread of knowledge, the dispersion of advanced technologies, and the movements of people. These same developments, combined with expanding global economic interactions, contribute to some of the problems and resentments that lie at the root of these security threats. But paradoxically, many of those same aspects of globalization offer new opportunities to achieve economic growth and democracy, thereby ameliorating the threats as well as some of their underlying causes. The dangers were clearly manifested in the September 11th terrorist attacks, which showed how the Al Qaeda organization was able effectively to exploit new communications technologies, global financial networks, and the ease of movements of people. The response by the international community has also benefited from some of globalization’s effects, primarily in technological advances in communications and in military weaponry. While it is too soon to say definitively, the result of these attacks may be to dampen some of the globalizing trends, as financial interactions receive greater scrutiny and security steps limit the mobility of people. Exploring the many issues raised by the September 11th terrorist attacks is not this paper’s task, nor is assessing the relationship between terrorism and globalization. 1.3. Objectives of the Study The specific or the main objectives of carrying out this research work includes: 1. To examine the nature and dynamics of transnational threats. 2. To examine the peculiar transnational threats pronging the Nigeria – Benin border. 3. To explore the impacts of transnational threat to Nigeria’s national security 4. To inform policy that will isolate Nigeria from transnational threats.
1.4. Research Hypothesis Hypothesis is a tentative generation, the validity of which remains to be tested. In its most elementary stage the hypothesis may be any hunch, guess, imaginative idea, which becomes basis for action or investigation. To achieve the desired objective, the research has the following declarative hypothesis to validate or invalidate at the end of the research. 1. Globalization trends increases incidence of transnational threats 2. The weakness of the state tends to engender transnational threats 3. Nigeria border security tends to be hampered by transnational threats 4. The higher the level of globalization and transnational threat the poorer the state of national security.
1.5. Scope and Limitations of the Study This research will be limited to the major transnational crimes along the Nigeria – Benin border. They include smuggling and trafficking in arms and weapons, drugs, humans and goods such as cars and petroleum products. The study will analyze and examine these transnational threats and how they affect our national security. However in the course of this research, the researcher may exceed the boundary of his study as an instrument of explanation. A study like this will have limitation such as time constraints, finances, mobility to acquire adequate materials and literature on the subject matter under study.