REDUCING THE LEVEL OF STRESS TO THE SOLE SANITARY LANDFILL OF NIGERIA


REDUCING THE LEVEL OF STRESS TO THE SOLE SANITARY LANDFILL OF NIGERIA  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

The pyrolysis organic high grade waste appeared like a more and more attractive way of solve the proliferation of these waste, especially during 1970-75 years.

Pyrolysis is the transformation of chemical compounds by heat without intervention of secondary reagents, (like oxygen). The chemical reactions are complex and transformed the waste into there fractions: solid, liquid, and cias 

The pyrolysis method for recycling used tyros is a techniques, which heats whole or shredded rubber 13 softened after which the rubber polymers continuously breakdown into smaller molecules, these small molecules eventually vaporize and exit from the reactor. These vapors can be burned directly to produce power or condensed into an only type liquid, general used as fuel. Some molecules are too small to condense and they remain as solid. When performed well a tyre pyrolysis process is a very clean operation and  has nearly no emission or waste. The properties of the gas, liquid and output are determined the type of feed stock used and the process conditions. For instance, whole types contain fibred and street. Slurred tyros have most of the steel and sometimes most of the fiber removed. The steel can be removed from the solid stream with magnets from recycling. The remaining solid materials often referred to as “charcoal” 

Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remove locations which enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling costs. Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs. Pyrolysis offer a flexible and attractive way of converting solid biomass into on easily stored and transported liquid, which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and chemicals. 

 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a condensed substance by heating in the absence of oxygen, and it is most commonly used for organic materials, called biomasses it occurs at various high temperatures for different kinds of biomasses. In shorts terms, pyrolysis used organic material and makes it into usable energy by heating at high temperature without oxygen. 

Pyrolysis of biomasses results in blowhard and bio-oil. These are both usable energy sources they can be used as safe, environmental friendly fuel option. Pyrolysis also provides opportunity for the process of agriculture residence, wood waste and municipal solid waste into clean energy pyrolysis is often used in the chemical industry. It is used for example, to provide charcoal and activated carbon to turn waste into safety disposable substance, and to produce gasoline from hydrocarbon 

Biomass

BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION VIG PYROLISIS

Catalytic conversion to Hydrogen

(Optional)

Pyrolysis 5500C, no air

Heat

Char

Vapors

Condensation

Combustion

Gas (H2, Co CH4 c2H2, C2H4)

Power Generation

Liquid

1.3 RATIONES OF PROJECT  

The rationale for undertaking this project is listed below:

100 % wastage rubber / type recycling is achieved (no waste left after the process). 

⦁ No soil, water or air pollution (pollution free) is observed during and after the process 

⦁ Economically valuable products are produced out of waste type (fuel oil, carbon black and steel). 

⦁ Raw material (waste type) is cheap to collect. 

⦁ Each recycled line of tyre preserve it tones of C02, which is a major green house gas.

⦁ The process can be applied to all rubber based material. 

⦁ The system creates an alternate source of energy to replace petroleum product and natural gas. 

⦁ Provides opportunity government and local administration to deal with the disposal of waste tyre.

⦁ Social benefit like the creation of employment and a healthier environment to live in.

⦁ It is a worldwide used technology in countries like India, china, Australia, and USA.

Reduce

Reuse

Recycle

Energy Recovery

Disposal 

Preferred environmental option

Least preferred

environmental option

The table below shows the waste hierarchy in of environment prefence, with waste disposal been that worst solution. This, waste recycling is found to be more preferred environmental option than land filling. 

1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE

1.4.1 OBJECTIVES AIM

The main objective of this project is to reduce the level of stress to the sole sanitary landfill of Nigeria which has a diminishing life time and also to reduce the amount of non-biodegradable waste ending in the natural environment untreated. 

- Development of pyrolysis process in a modified environment able to enhance thermal degradation of biomass (steam pyrolysis)

- Development of a hybrid multifunctional catalyst that would produce deoxygenated liquid product. 

 1.4.2 Aim

The specific aims of the project are: 

- To reduce hazards related to the increased disposal of type waste. 

- To convert waste tyros into useful products in an environmental friendly manner. 

- To produce fuel oil, carbon black, steel and gas (which is re-used in the process). 

Reference

Pingali, Kalgan c; Rock straw,  David A; Deng, Shuguang (2005). “Silver Nan particles from ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of Aqueous silver nitrate.”

GD Rai, Non convectional Energy sources, units energy from biomass. 

Journal of Hazardous material 2006 vol. 137No 2. PP1065-1073

Lehmann, Johannes. “Bifocal; the newfrotier” Archived from the original on 2008-06-18. Retrieved 2008-07-10

Gundau, peter (2007-10-27)” fact sheet peter’s patch” Gar dining Australian. Australian Broad casting Corporation Retrieved 2008-07-10. 

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REDUCING THE LEVEL OF STRESS TO THE SOLE SANITARY LANDFILL OF NIGERIA



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