ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ASA LGA OF KWARA STATE
The development of a nation is a function of the level of the resourcefulness of the people which to a great extent, relates to the level of quality of education in that nation. Such progress or development could only occur when an individual in the society is economically engaged and per capital income is enhanced. This could only be possible when government educational policies are geared towards a functional education that can lead to job creation and also self reliance. Entrepreneurship education is a means through which government could attain such development in the society. Therefore, this paper examines how the role of entrepreneurship education and how it could help in job creation in Nigeria. The challenges of quality entrepreneurship education were also discussed.
This research work, therefore examined the need for entrepreneurial education as a tool for reducing unemployment rate among secondary school students and the study was carried out in selected secondary schools within Asa L.G.A of Kwara State. The objectives of the study were to investigate the need for entrepreneurship education and its significance in the reduction of unemployment rate among secondary school students in Asa L.G.A of Kwara State. And also to determine the strength of entrepreneurship education in developing the entrepreneurial skills.
The methodology adopted was a mixed analysis of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on the survey design which relied on primary and secondary sources of gathering data, through the use of questionnaires. One hundred and sixty five (165) questionnaires were administered.
The study adopted simple random sampling technique. The data was analyzed and presented using tables and percentages.
The findings of this study suggests that there should be a paradigm shift from general education to entrepreneurship education in the present realities for the need to develop entrepreneurial skills, empower Nigerian youths and create business opportunities particularly for secondary school graduates and at the same time ameliorate some socio-economic problems, unemployment and other social vices prevalent among unemployed youths. Therefore, formalized entrepreneurial training can enhance acquisition of relevant skills for self-employment and self reliant.
The study recommends that there should be a working partnership, bridging the gap between the educational institutions and the industry. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), Federal and State Ministry of Education in collaboration with Centre for Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria should make more deliberate efforts to identify entrepreneurship as strategic attempt to address youth unemployment. This could be done by cultivating and promoting entrepreneurship culture among students as a remedy to escalating unemployment challenges.
TABLE OF CONTENS
Table of Contents v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Theoretical Framework 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem 2
1.4 Purpose of the Study 3
1.5.1 General Questions 3
1.5.2 Research Questions 3
1.6 Research Hypotheses 3
1.7 Significance of the Study 4
1.8 Delimitation of the Study 4
1.9 Operational Definition of the Terms 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Unemployment in Nigeria. 6
2.3 Conceptual Review 8
2.4 Empirical Review 12
2.5 Summary of Literature 14
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 15
3.1 Introduction 15
3.2 Research Design 15
3.3 Population of the Study 15
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 16
3.5 Research Instrument 16
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 16
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 17
3.8 Administration of the Instrument 17
3.9 Data Analysis 17
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, DISCUSSION AND RESULTS 18
4.1 Introduction 18
4.2 Demographic Data of Respondents 18
4.3 Analysis of the Questionnaire 20
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 29
4.5 Discussion of Research Findings 31
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 33
5.1 Introduction 33
5.2 Summary of Findings 33
5.3 Conclusion 33
5.4 Implications of the Study 34
5.5 Recommendations 35
5.6 Limitations of the Study 36
5.7 Suggestions for further studies 36
1.1 Background to the Study
Entrepreneurship education has been recognized as an antidote to unemployment and poverty among the youths in both developed and developing countries. Aina and Salako (2008) described entrepreneurship as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities and takes advantage of scarce resources to exploits the opportunities profitably. Akpomi (2009) also viewed that for any country to foster genuine economic growth and development, its educational system must be considered in the bedrock of any meaningful development. Driving entrepreneurship education according to Ojeifo (2013) is the process through which individuals are made participating members of their society. It enables them to become capable of living in the society and to contribute towards its economic development. This implies that entrepreneurship education is bedrock of economy development. Entrepreneurship education has helped developed countries such as United State of America, United Kingdom and Canada to transform their economy (Kuratko, 2003).
Entrepreneurship education contributes in an immeasurable ways toward creating new jobs, wealth creation, poverty reduction and income generating for both government and individuals. Nigeria adopted entrepreneurship education to accelerate economic growth and development. This reflect in Nigerias national policy on education which states that education is the most important instrument for propelling change, as no fundamental change can occur in any society except through educational revolution that impact on the intellects (Akhuemonkhan, Raimi and Sofoluwe 2013). To support this the assertion, Federal Government of Nigeria gave directive to all Nigerian tertiary institutions through its agencies to develop a minimum academic standard for teaching entrepreneurship and to adopt entrepreneurship studies as a compulsory course. However, more than ten years, practical implementation still suffers set back. Akhuemonkhan et al (2013) lamented the undue emphasis on exams and paper qualification with the concomitant inability of the system to address aggressively the issue of dysfunctional knowledge. In other words, Nigeria educational institutions still teach the youths to master various subjects but have failed to relate those subjects to the Nigeria needs; thereby lack the ability to solve the fundamental problems of living (Akhuemonkhan et al 2013).
1.2 Theoretical Framework
This study is anchored on some theoretical background of entrepreneurship among the proponents of entrepreneurship include:McClelland (1961). Psychological theory of entrepreneurship. McClelland postulated that traits, motives and personalities are major motivating factors that instill entrepreneurship spirit in an individual. The psychologist was of the view that there is an inner urge in someone that makes an entrepreneur to desire for a change of status and environment that may lead to innovation.The inner urge or force should be injected into secondary school students to see a desire for a change of status that inspires them to generate ideas and also energize them to pursue small scale businesses for economic growth and achievement in life.Hagen, (1962) theory of social change centers on various social context that enable the opportunities entrepreneurs leverage. In furtherance of Hagens sociological theory, Kilby (1971) added that entrepreneurship results from adaptation. Therefore, for a secondary school student to be an entrepreneur, he must be ready to adapt to his environment for easy identification of business opportunity. Adaptation metamorphoses into reality as an enterprise.Schumpter (1934) marked innovation as a theory of entrepreneurship. The theory credited to him is also called Schumpterism. Schumpeters theory of 1934 in his work in 1952 saw innovation as a major force behind entrepreneurship. In his postulation he argued that every growth oriented venture is a function of innovation without which theory of entrepreneurship does not exist. The implication of Schumpters theory of entrepreneurship is that secondary school students in Kwara State must not only be innovative but should also be creative.
1.3 Statement of the ProblemIn Nigeria, poverty, insecurity, unemployment and hunger have been the order of the day. Despite the fact that Nigeria is one of the oil rich countries and she has highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa, her citizens still wallowing in poverty. To support this observation, Baba (2013) reported that about 80% of the graduates in Nigeria find it difficult to get employment every year. Ojeaga and Owolabi (2011) also noted that Nigeria faces a major problem of graduate unemployment. According to the Ojeaga and Owolabi (2011), young men and women leave the Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education every year with littlent rate in Nigeria increased to 10.40 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015 from 9.90 percent in the previous period. The number of unemployed persons went up by 518 thousand to 8 million and labour force population rose by 1 million to 76.95 million. To support this assertion, Police Service Commission (2016) also said that it received 705, 352 applications within two weeks of opening its portal for people seeking enlistment into the Nigeria Police Force to meet the approved 10,000 new entrants. No wonder Nigeria is battling with insecurity such as armed robbery, ethnic crisis, assassination, militancy, kidnapping and terrorism.
1.4 Purpose of the StudyThe main purpose of the study was to investigate the need for entrepreneurship education and its significance in the reduction of unemployment among secondary school students in Asa L.G.A of Kwara State. And also to determine the strength of entrepreneurship education in imparting the entrepreneurial skills and attitudes in
1.5.1 General Questions
1. Can unemployment problem in Nigeria be solved through entrepreneurship education?
2. What are the obstacles or challenges facing entrepreneurship development in Nigeria?
3. Is there any beneficial relationship between entrepreneurship education and job creation in Nigeria?
1.5.2 Research Questions
1. Is there the need for entrepreneurship education among secondary students?
2. Does entrepreneurship education play significance role in reducing unemployment rate among secondary school students?
3. To what extent has entrepreneurship education helped in creating job opportunities for secondary school students?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance:
1. Ho1: there is no need for entrepreneurship education among secondary school students.
2. Ho2: There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and unemployment rate among secondary school students.
3. Ho3: Entrepreneurship education has no significant effect on reduction rate of unemployment among secondary school students.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The focus of this study brings to the fore the crucial need for entrepreneurial education in Nigeria, putting more consideration on the educational system, strategies and its eventual social developmental effect in the society.
The study highlights problems of education in the country and its equivalence to level of poverty in the society by virtue of lack of employment or knowledge of how to startup businesses.One of the MDG goals highlights education as a critical factor for reducing poverty and dependency in developed nations. Therefore, this study will contribute to knowledge by identifying how important is entrepreneurship education is to the economy of the nation. This is because qualitative education focused on the neurial education; however, it is the first to do a comparative study on what is being implemented by different state government to see its effectiveness in order to ascertain the strategy which would eventually help for the Nigerian economy in truly eradicating unemployment in Nigeria
The findings from this study will be of great benefit to the educationists, the government at all levels (for curriculum update or reform) and student researchers. It will also serve as reference point for future studies in the related disciplines.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The delimitations of the study are listed below:
I. Classroom observations were inhibited by the long and cumbersome process of obtaining permissions to carry out research.
II. There was no comprehensive data on student employment statistics from the secondary schools involved.
III. Responses from some students were possibly laced with ideals rather than realistic perspective of what they do experience.
1.9 Operational Definition of the Terms
⦁ Creativity: mental characteristic that allows a person to think outside of the box, which results in innovative or different approaches to a particular task.
⦁ Development: the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements.
⦁ Education: the process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
⦁ Employment: is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
⦁ Entrepreneur: is an individual who, rather than working as an employee, founds and runs a small business, assuming all the risks and rewards of the venture.
⦁ Entrepreneurship: the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit.
⦁ Innovation: a new method of doing something. It is most often applied to the introduction of new goods and services to the market, particularly those incorporating some advance in technology.
⦁ Job: a piece of work or an order for a piece of work to be done.
⦁ Unemployed: a person of employment age (generally 16 to 55 years) who does not have a paying job but is available for work and is actively seeking a job.
⦁ Unemployment: is a situation in which able-bodied people who are looking for a job cannot find a job..