THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL ORIENTATION AGENCY)


THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL ORIENTATION AGENCY)  

ABSTRACT

The topic of this research, stress and its impact on productivity had and still dominating discussion in the field of management.

This research exposes the multiple implications stress holds for productivity in particular and other dimensions of organizational life in general.

This study suggests how stress can be converted from seeing constraint to stimulating productivity.

Part of the myths that characterizes stress perception is that it is entirely a bad phenomenon. This was however vitiated by the series of literature reviewed in this work as well as interview conducted.

One of the successes of this research is the fact that it has provoke further inquiry by future researchers as the insights provided by the findings will be of immense value. Prominent in the list of findings is the fact that nobody is immune to stress.

It is the considered opinion of the researcher that stress with its bad reputation is not to be feared since it can be a catalyst for productivity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title  Page………………………………………………………………….. i

Certification  ……………………………………………………………….

Declaration iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement  ……………………………………………………….. ii

Abstract vii

Table of Contentsviii

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.0 Introduction  ………………………………………………………… 1

1.1 Statement of the Problem………………………………………… 4

1.2 Objectives of the Study…………………………………………… 6

1.3 Significance of the Study…………………………………………. 6

1.4 Scope of the Study ……………………………………………….. 7

1.5 Research Hypothesis …………………………………………….. 7

1.6 Methodology……………………………………………………….. 8

1.7 Limitation of Study…………………………………………………. 9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction 10

2.1 Various Definitions 10

2.2 Typology of Stress… 14

2.3 Causes of Stress 15

2.4 Stress and Individual 27

2.5 Stress and Job Types… 41

2.6 Consequences/Effects of Stress 44

2.7 Stress and Decision Making 47

2.8 Stress and Productivity 48

2.9 Parameters of Productivity 49

CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

3.0 Introduction 54

3.1 Brief History of National Orientation Agency 54

3.2 Organizational Structure 59

3.3 Stress in National Orientation Agency (Individual) 70

3.4 Measurement of Stress in an Organization (NOA) 73

3.5 Benefits of Stress 74

3.6 Difficulties Encountered 76

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction 77

4.1 Research Methodology 78

4.2 Method of Data Analysis 81

4.3 Presentations and Analysis of Data 82

4.4 Test of Hypotheses 89

4.5 Research Findings 91

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 Introduction 94

5.1 Summary 94

5.2 Conclusion 95

5.3 Recommendations 96

Appendix

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Two operative words emerged from the phrase-work of this research topic, to wit, stress and productivity.

Dr. Hans Selye floated the idea of stress in 1936. Since its discovery, organizational researchers have made several attempts to assess its impact on organizational life but very little has been said about its positive effects (if any) on the life of individual and organization. This forms the crux of this research.

Productivity is the underlying objective in the employment of any factor of production. This research will juxtapose stress vis-avis productivity with a view to finding out if there is correlation between these two recurring expression in the work place.

The increasing focus on the individual in the work place combined with a growing awareness of importance of health and safety and environmental issues has brought stress to the fore.

On occasions, all of us experience stress. Beneficial stress can help derive a few of us to become champions, but harmful stress can drive others to despair. Stress, therefore is a powerful force that should always be handled and investigated with respect.

Stress in an individual is any interference that disturbs a person’s healthy, mental and physical well-being. It occurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normal range of capabilities. The result of which is destructive to individuals, families, society and organizations, which can suffer from ORGANIZATIONAL stress.

Stress has been called the “Invisible Disease.”   It is a disease that may affect the organization, and any of the people in it. An organization with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turn over, deteriorating industrial and consumer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control is suffering from organizational stress. The causes may range from unclear or overlapping job descriptions to lack of communication, to poor working conditions.

The health and safety executives define stress as “the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them.” The word “Pressure” from this definition needs a careful look. It can create a ‘buzz’ and be a motivating factor, and the negative experience, which can occur when this pressure becomes excessive and the individual, is unable to cope.

Pressure is part and parcel of all work and helps to keep us motivated, but excessive pressure can lead to stress, which undermines performance, is costly to employers and can make people ill. Although work related stress is not illness, the psychological impact of stress can contribute to problems with ill health.

The second coefficient of this research is productivity, which has been defined by James A.F. Stoner and Charles Wankel (1988:214) as “The chief means whereby humankind can raise itself out of poverty to a condition of relative material affluence.” The main way to increase output per capita (which normally translates directly into the standard of living) is by increasing productivity. Productivity then becomes the measure of how well

an operation system functions. The importance of productivity to our economic well being as a nation and to the survival of individual organization is demonstrated by the wide discussion it is currently receiving. Such indicators of national economic health as inflation, economic growth and the balance of payments are related to the level of productivity and changes in this level. For example, increase in productivity save scarce resources, since the resources requirement is less per unit of output. Productivity increases help mitigate inflation by counteracting the escalating costs of labour, materials, energy and other expenses. Productivity improvements also strengthen the competitive position of a firm or a country in the important international market.

For the individual manager, productivity is vital because it indicates the level of efficiency and competitiveness of his or her firm or department.

So, if stress can impact on productivity, to what extent and under what circumstances?

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Productivity has assumed a center stage in employee/management relations in recent times. It has become the yardstick with which remunerations and fringe benefits decisions are based.

In the light of this, organizational researchers are now concerned with factors that could enhance or mar productivity. This research is an attempt to contribute to this topical and very important subject matter.

Prominent among the factors that have been identified as a sine qua non or an inhibition for productivity is STRESS.

Stress as a concept has received more negative connotation that its role as a catalyst to productivity. This research therefore intends to find out positive aspects of stress.

The focus of the research shall be

⦁ How desirable is stress?

⦁ Is there any correlation between stress and productivity?

⦁ If yes, what is the equilibrium?

⦁ If no, then how destructive is stress?

⦁ What then are the yardstick of measuring productivity under stress and productivity without stress?

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study is designed to

1. Evaluate the impact of stress on productivity.

2. Suggest ways on how stress can be used as a catalyst for productivity.

3. Provoke or stimulate further research into the subject matter.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is important in that productivity is a determinant for measuring employee effectiveness and efficiency.

The study will highlight  the negative and positive aspects of stress on productivity.

The study will expose employee’s reaction or behaviour when stressed.

The study is intended to significantly contribute to existing body of knowledge. Also, the study will serve as a base for future researchers in the related field.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will concern itself with the impact of stress on productivity in organizations with particular reference to National Orientation Agency.

The study will evaluate the transition of the organization from Mass Mobilization for Social Justice, Self-reliance and Economic recovery (MAMSER) to National Orientation Agency (NOA) and show the impact of stress on their productivity.

The study will reveal stress at different levels of the organization. It will show stress level at various departments.

The study will compare stress and behaviour at the Headquarters, State Headquarters and Local Government.

The management side of stress or the organizational life of stress is the pre-occupation of this research (not medical).

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1. Ho Stress has no significant impact on productivity H1 Stress has significant impact on productivity

2. Ho There is no correlation between stress and Productivity in an Organization.

H1 There is correlation between stress and productivity in an Organization

1.6 METHODOLOGY

To generate relevant information for this research, the researcher will employ the following techniques of data collection.

1. Questionnaire

2. Interview

3. Text books, Journals

4. Internet

The questionnaire will be administered to cover the headquarters in Abuja, Kaduna and National Orientation staff at the local governments in Kaduna State.

National Orientation staff from the period of MAMSER till date will be interviewed.

Relevant publications on the subject matter will be consulted for relevant information.

1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY

1. The research is conducted simultaneously with regular academic programme, there is therefore time pressure on the researcher.

2. Previous or related work to serve as a guide to the researcher was virtually unavailable.

3. Resource limitation to cover the length and breath of the organization under study.

4. Some questionnaires were poorly administered due to poor understanding of the subject matter.

.

THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL ORIENTATION AGENCY)



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