AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE BRONG AHAFO EDUCATION DIRECTORATE
Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated. Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position. The motivation for the study was prompted by the low level of concentration on employee motivation as compared to the employees of other organizations which have caused an acute shortage of qualified teachers at the basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level due to high migration to other sector (GNAT Report, 2013). Motivation in Ghana Education Service is down, the workers and the government, who are responsible for implementing the national policies and programmes relating to pre-tertiary education in the country, have clashed many times in the recent years over salary and conditions of service (GNAT Report, 2013). It is against this background that the research investigated into: “The Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate”. The general objective of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees; to identify factors that motivate employees; to determine the employees‟ performance and to assess the effect of motivation on the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate. Mixed methodology, that is questionnaires and interviews were used to gather data and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and content analysis for qualitative aspect. The study has revealed that promotion and opportunity for advancement are the major motivation factors and the study has also revealed that motivation level is low in the area of wages and salaries. Ghana Education appears to be paying lowest wages and salaries in the industry. It is therefore recommended that Ghana Education Service (management) should consider as a matter of urgency, the need to make upward adjustment in wages and salaries which will go a long way to reduce the high incidence of labour
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
List of tables x
List of figures xi
List of abbreviations xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 4
Objectives of the study 5
General objective 5
Specific objectives 5
Research questions 5
Significance of the study 6
Brief Methodology 7
Scope of the study 8
Limitations of the study 8
Organisation of the study 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Motivation and employee performance 10
Definitions of motivation 10
Forms of Motivation 12
Theories of Motivation 14
Content theories of motivation 14
Process theories of motivation 19
The reinforcement theory of motivation 22
Factors that motivates employees 23
The effects of motivation on employees‟ performance 28
Monetary motivators versus non-monetary motivators 30
Conceptual framework 33
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE 35
Research methodology 35
Research design 35
Research strategy 36
Sources of Data 37
Primary Sources 37
Secondary Sources 38
Population, sample size and sampling technique 38
Research Instrument 40
Questionnaire development 40
Interview guide 41
Data collection procedure 41
Analysis of data 42
Profile of Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate 45
Background Information about the Municipal Education Office 45
BECE Pass Rate 45
WASSCE Pass Rates 46
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA, ANALYSIS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 47
Quantitative Analysis 47
Background information of respondents 47
Gender of respondents 47
Age bracket of respondents 48
Highest professional qualification 48
The number of years served in the teaching service 49
Current rank of respondents 50
Factors that Motivate Employee 50
Nature of work 50
Promotion in the organization 51
Opportunity for Advancement 52
Appreciation for work done 53
Working Condition 55
Relationship with Superior 56
Relationship with peers 56
Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among Employees 57
Recognition at workplace 57
Authority to make necessary decisions in order to complete assigned tasks 58
Growth opportunity 58
Management style 59
Regular on the job training 60
Monetary incentives adequate 60
Determinants of employee performance 61
Working Environment 63
Compensation package (financial and non-financial) 63
Job security 64
Support for other colleagues 65
Age and health condition of employee 66
Retirement and other benefits 67
Effects of motivation on the Employee Performance 67
Nature of work 68
Promotion in the organisation 68
Opportunity for advancement 69
Appreciation for work done 70
Working Conditions 72
Relationships with superior 72
Relationships with peers 73
Does motivation has effect on your performance 73
The effect of motivation on employees performance (Regression Analysis) 74
Model summary 74
Qualitative Analysis 77
Factors that Motivate Employee 78
Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among employee 80
Determinants of Employee Performance 81
Effects of motivation on the employee performance 83
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary of findings 85
Background information of respondents 85
Factors that motivate employees 86
Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among employees 86
Determinants of employee performance 86
Effects of motivation on the employee performance 87
Areas for further research 89
Appendix 1 96
Appendix 2 101
Background of the Study
The Ghana Education Service (GES) is responsible for spearheading the nation Education vision by laying a good foundation that would facilitate the development of human resource in Ghana. Since the sector has a direct investment in human capital which is the instrument for improving the productive capacity of societies as much as their political, economic and technological development is concern, there is the need for a good foundation. When children are educated poverty is reduced, the fertility rate is lowered, health is improved, and the national status is raised coupled with higher productivity leading to higher income (Shultz, 1974; Cohn, 1979; Noor, 1981). Furthermore education enhances the status of women; promote adaptability to technological changes and forges national unity (Juster, 1975).
The future development of the nation (Ghana) therefore hinges more than ever, on the capacity of the nation and individuals to acquire relevant knowledge in literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills and attitudes. This is so since education is the keystone to national development and quality basic education is the foundation. It is significant to note that the availability of well-motivated teachers is central to improving student‟s achievement. Even with the best strategy in place and an appropriate organizational architecture, an organization will be effective only if its members are motivated to perform at a high level. Leading is such an important managerial activity that it entails ensuring that each member of the organization is motivated to perform highly and help the organization to achieve its goals. When managers are effective, the outcome is a highly motivated workforce. A key challenge to managers of organizations both small and large is to encourage employees to perform at a high level (Jones et al, 2000).
According to Pate (1998) the study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. The basic underlying question is „why do people do what they do? Kovach (1980) states that despite numerous studies done on motivation, managers still are not close to understanding employees‟ motivation than their colleague more than fifty years ago. Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated. Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position. Even though money occupies a major place in the mix of motivators, money alone cannot motivate employee well to work unless it is coupled with other non-monetary motivators (Frey and Osterloch, 2002).
Performance is an evaluation of the results of a person‟s behaviour. It involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a job. Motivation is only one factor among many that contributes to an employee‟s job performance. All thing being equal, one would expect a highly motivated teacher or an officer would deliver high-quality teaching or service than those poorly motivated teacher or officer. All things however, are not always equal because so many factors affect performance – factors such as personality, the difficulty of the task, availability of resources and working conditions. To attain high levels of performance as an employee and manager, you must be sure that you and your employees have the ability, motivation and the resources to meet objectives. When performance is not at the standard level or above, you must determine which performance factor needs to be improved and improve it (Lussier, 2005).
Studies on motivation depicts that there are several ways to motivate employees. These are known as theories, which can be divided into two categories. They are the content theories and the process theories. The content theory focus on what motivates employees and it was
propounded by eminent writers such as Maslow (1946), McClelland (1988) and Herzberg (1968). Vroom (1969), Adams (1965), Locke and Latham (1990) are the proponents of the process theories and they focus on how motivation occurs. Reis and Pena (2001) question whether motivating people to work in the 21st century with theories conceived during the past 100 years are likely to be infeasible. They conclude that the core message is that managers should reconsider the out-dated motivational patterns utilised to maintain role performance in organisations and adopt a fresh motivation formula for the 21st century based on friendship, work and respect. However, Chartered Management Institute (2001) checklist maintains that these theories are still valid today. Even though the two theories are complementary, they are in a way opposite and their differences leads others to conduct further studies on motivation. This led to a number of ways through which employees could be motivated to increase performance. Several writers such as Roche and Mackinnon (1970) and others such as Mayfield et al (1998) suggest that leadership styles and freedom given to employees are significant in motivating employees. Luthans and Stajkovic (2000) and Armstrong and Murlis (2004) held the view that recognition can be used to motivate worker to perform well whilst Oldham and Hackman (2010), Lawler (1969) argued that job design has an important role to play in employees behaviour.
Considering many approaches to motivation and how difficult it is to find or identify one that solely motivates workers, the study seek to determine whether motivation have effect on employees‟ performance.
Statement of the Problem
The Ghana Education Service is responsible for the co-ordination of the approved national policies and programmes relating to pre-tertiary education. The service is made up of teachers and non-teaching supporting personnel in pre-tertiary educational institutions in the public system; managers of educational units and their supporting staff; and other persons that may be employed for the service (Ghana Education Service Act, 1995 [Act 506]).
Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently. Teacher motivation is inadequate for instance; meagre salary compared to other institutions workers, no accommodation for teachers and they have to struggle for accommodation after completing school, and sometimes have to commute long distances to work.
These and other factors are causing absenteeism, lackadaisical attitude and dissatisfaction among the GES workers. The rate of turnover of GES workers is increasing at the alarming rate and those staying are embarking on frequent strikes for better conditions of service (Asunafo North Municipal Education Annual Performance Report, 2013).
Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate.
The objective of the Study
This section deals with the general objective and specific objectives of the study.
The general objective of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate.
The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To identify factors that motivates employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.
2. To identify factors that serve as dissatisfaction among workers in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.
3. To determine the employees performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.
4. To assess the effect of motivation on the employees performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.
This section deals with the formulation of the research question that will help to achieve the objectives of the study. They are:
1. What are the factors that motivate employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?
2. What are the factors that serve as dissatisfaction among employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?
3. What determines the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?
4. What is the effect of motivation on the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?
5. In what ways could motivation be improved upon in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?
Significance of the Study
The study examines the effect of motivation on employees Performance at the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate. The motivation for the study was prompted by the low level of concentration on employee motivation as compared to the employees of other organizations which have caused an acute shortage of qualified teachers at the basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level due to high migration to other sector, that is high rate of teachers‟ turnover (GNAT Report, 2013). The study will therefore serve as a contribution to the body of existing literature related to motivation system in Ghana Education Service. This will serve as a guide to researchers and to provide data upon which further studies could be concluded.
The research findings and results that will be reported in this study will provide the management of Ghana Education Service with more reliable and scientific way of motivating and evaluating the level of their employees‟ performance.
The finding and results of this study will provide the policy makers like government agencies such as the Ministry of Education, Ghana Education Service Council, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning with invaluable insights and a more reliable guide to monitoring the impact of the operations of the Ghana Education Service in the country.
The study will provide the stakeholders like Government, Church, Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), Past Students‟ Association, School Management Committee (SMC) Assembly Members etc., invaluable information that will allow them to provide useful suggestions to the improvement in teaching and learning in Ghana.
Although the study is limited to Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate in the Brong Ahafo Region, other districts/municipals, regions or the entire nation, together with countries of the West African sub-region with similar conditions will find the results useful in their education planning and delivery programmes.
The study was guided by a mixed methodology approach which consists of both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. To this end, questionnaires and interviews were used in eliciting data from two Hundred and twenty one (221) comprising 214 questionnaires and 7 interview guides representing 10% of the total population of the target group i.e. the Municipal Education Office staff and teaching and non-teaching personnel of basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level respectively. A content analysis technique was employed to analyse and interpret the qualitative data (interviews). The quantitative data was however analyse using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
Scope of the Study
The study area, Brong Ahafo Education Directorate has 27 districts/municipals. The study however focussed on the employees of Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate that is the teaching and non-teaching personnel of basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level respectively.
Limitation of the Study
The research had certain limitations and therefore was confined to Asunafo North Municipality of the Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana due to lack of time and adequate financial resources. Also, time frame for the completion of this research was a major limiting factor which affected the conduct of a comprehensive research on the effect of motivation on the output of employees of Ghana Education Service. Furthermore, the non-co-operative attitude of some of the respondents reduced the number of people interviewed than the researcher had originally intended. Finally, inadequate financial resources and lack of readily organised data was a limiting factor, however, in spite of these constraints; all effort was made to come out with thorough research.
Organization of the Study
This work is organized into five chapters as shown in figure 1.1. Chapter one deals with the introduction. This takes a look at the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, brief methodology, scope of the study, and limitations of the study as well as the organization of the study. Chapter Two deals with reviewing existing literature that primarily deals with discussions and review of literature related to the concepts of the research. The third chapter describes the methodology adopted for the study. This includes the research design, area of study, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, administration of the questionnaire, and data analysis procedure. Chapter Four comprises compilation, analysis and discussion of data collected from the fieldwork. Chapter Five also looks at the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Figure 1.1 Organisation of the study
Chapter One Introduction
⦁ Background of the study
⦁ Statement of the problem
⦁ Objectives of the study
⦁ Research questions
⦁ Significance of the study
⦁ Brief methodology
⦁ Scope of the study
⦁ Limitation of the study
Chapter Two Literature Review
⦁ Motivation and employee performance
⦁ The concept of motivation
⦁ Forms of motivation
⦁ Theories of motivation
⦁ Factors that motivate employees
⦁ The effects of motivation on employees performance
⦁ Monetary motivators versus non-monetary motivators
⦁ Conceptual framework
Chapter Three Methodology and organizational Profile
⦁ Research methodology
⦁ Sources of data
⦁ Population and Sampling
⦁ Research instrument
⦁ Analysis of data
⦁ Profile of Asunafo North Municipal and Municipal Education Directorate
Presentation of Data, Analysis and Discussion of Findings
⦁ Quantitative Analysis
⦁ Qualitative Analysis
Chapter Five Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
⦁ Summary of findings