THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN COMMERCIAL BANKS
This research work was conducted to determine the impact of training on employee’s performance in commercial banks. Specifically the study determines the nature of relationship between training and organizational growth; evaluates the extent to which training resulted to employee satisfaction; examines the effect of training on employee self confidence and evaluates the effect of training on employee performance. The data used for the research were elicited from primary and secondary sources via the administration of structured questionnaire and interview. Data analysis was done using percentages and mean scores while Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to test the four hypotheses formulated for the study. Findings from the study showed that training has a significant relationship with organizational growth, the extent to which training resulted to employee satisfaction is significant and the effect of training on employee performance is significant. The research also found out that the effect of training on employee self confidence is not significant. The study concludes that training is important to the success of any organisation, adequate training of employees gives the organisation an advantage in a competitive business environment. Failure to invest in training is a loss of .human capital base, market share and weakened capacity to handle emerging market dynamics. The study recommends that to boost and sustain employee satisfaction, banks should commit more resources to train those who have not been trained and those who have not been sufficiently trained. Management should enrich the content of training initiatives so as to improve the morale of employees in commercial banks.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Content vii
List of Tables ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study1
Statement of the Problem3
Objectives of the Study3
Scope of the Study5
Significance of the Study5
Limitations of the Study5
Operational Definitions of Key Terms6
Profile of the Organization Used for the Study6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Training13
Methods of Training16
Approaches to Training23
Procedures for Effective Training26
Problems of Training27
Measuring the Effectiveness of Training28
Benefits of Training29
Determination of Training Needs32
Implementing Training and Programmes36
Evaluation of Training Programme38
Advantages of Training Programmes42
Objectives of Training45
Designing Training Programmes46
Government Policy on Training46
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sources of Data52
Population of the Study52
Instrument for Data Collection55
Reliability of Instrument55
Validity of Instrument56
Data Analysis Method56
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Test of Hypotheses63
Discussion of Findings67
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of Findings69
Areas for Further Studies70
Contribution to Knowledge70
Appendix I 75
Appendix II 78
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Summary of the Sample Size 55
Table 4.1 Questionnaire Administration and Return 58
Table 4.2 Backgrounds of Respondents 58
Table 4.3: What Type of Training have you Received in the Bank 59
Table 4.4: What is the Nature of Relationship between Training and Organizational Growth 60
Table 4.5: To what Extent has Training Resulted to Employee Satisfaction 62
Table 4.6: What is the Effect of Training on Employee Self Confidence 64
Table 4.7: What is the Effect of Training on Employee Performence 65
Table 4.8 Summary of Hypothesis Tested 67
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Right from the beginning of Nigeria’s nationhood in 1960, it was clear that the rate of national development and technological advancement evolved not so much on the availability of means and resources but on the articulation and effective utilization of Nigeria’s vast human and material resources, Hacket (1979:41) highlights this when he observes that awareness of the necessity for training and development in Nigeria is low as reflected in productivity in Nigerian organizations. In order to get the best from employee, it is important for his employer to develop, train and retrain him to acquire and improve his skills, which enhances his productivity..
Training of employee has become a major pre-occupation in modern organizational objective of growth. To achieve this basic objective of growth and profitability, it means that management as well as employees must improve their input into the organization. This is because the performance of an organization is a function of the collective performance of employees. Garavan, Costine and Herathy (1995:47) opine that there are many critical factors which organizations must consider as they face the future. This alone implies that the success of an organization depends on who works to achieve the organization’s objective, that is, the presence of qualified manpower.
The internal and external environments of any organization are dynamic. They change as time changes. For instance, changes have resulted from advancement in science and technology, intensified pattern of competition, quest for competitive advantages brought about by closer customer relationship, devolved decision making, quality improvement of products and services to mention just a few. This dynamic nature of
organization’s environment triggered the thought of improvement in the performance of employees, in order to outweigh competitors by providing quality goods and services. In an attempt to remedy this basic quest for improved job performance, the issue of getting qualified staff as well as retain high calibre employees and develop a more flexible adaptable skill base to cope with the volatile market is therefore important. Armer (1970:30) emphasizes that over time, people become uneducated and therefore incompetent to perform at a level they once performed adequately. Training enhances this, as they are organizational efforts aimed at helping an employee acquire basic skills required for efficient execution of the functions for which they are hired.
One would add that training is a set of activities, whereby, practitioners, managers or would be managers are assisted in improving their individual competence and performance as well as the organization’s environment with the ultimate goal of raising the standard of organizational performance. It therefore follows, that employee training and development are at the heart of employee utilization, productivity, commitment, motivation and growth. An organization may have employees that are determined with appropriate equipment a managerial support, yet employee performance falls below expected standards. The missing factor in many cases is lack of adequate skills and knowledge, which are acquired through training, Ubeku (1995:10) sees human resource management as a control function exercised by all managers in an organization and/or by a particular department often designated as personnel or human resources. It is therefore, important that the need for training be identified and provided for. It is an indispensable part of management function in terms of operational efficiency and effectiveness. This is because an organization
which puts great emphasis on employee training is directly planning for its survival and steady growth.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issues of employee training were not taken seriously by many organizations This is because of the failure to acknowledge the fact that the business environment has become very dynamic and only those organizations with the right manpower to meet the modern technological and informational need in the business times can succeed in the globalized business world.
Training is paramount to the success of any modern organization, for organization to compete effectively it must train its manpower to meet with the requirements for sustainability. However, organisation that do not train or embark on inadequate training encounter certain problems, these include low performance, poor coordination, increase labuor turnover, inadequate manpower low capital base, loss of market share, and the inability to cope favorably with the technological and informational demands of the business environment.
What organizations could do to handle these problems is to engage on effective training of employees. Thus, a study on training becomes necessary.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To determine the nature of relationship between training and organisational growth.
2. To evaluate the extent to which training results to employee job satisfaction.
3. To examine the effect of training on employee self confidence.
4. To evaluate the effect of training on employee performance.
The research questions for this study are clearly stated as follows:
1. What is the nature of relationship between training and organizational growth?
2. To what extent has training resulted to employee job satisfaction?
3. What is the effect of training on employees self confidence?
4. What is the effect of training on employee performance?
The hypotheses for this study are stated as follows:
1 Ho: There is no significant relationship between training and organizational growth
H1: There is a significant relationship between training and organizational growth.
2 Ho: The extent to which training resulted to employee satisfaction is not significant.
H1: The extent to which training resulted to employee satisfaction is significant.
3 Ho: Training does not increase employees self confidence.
H1: Training increases employees self confidence.
4 Ho: Employee training does not increase productivity.
H1: Employee training increases productivity.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is restricted to the impact of training on employees’ performance in the commercial banking industry. Geographically, the study was conducted at three major banks in Delta State they are the UBA, First Bank of Nigeria Plc and Intercontinental Bank of Nigeria Plc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will serve as a yardstick to measure the successes of training in the commercial banks. The study will prepare the managers of banks with the right information for training.
The study will correct the misconceptions by most people that investment in training is a waste of organization scarce resources that could be utilized for other things.
The study will also serve as reference materials for future studies.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
⦁ Financial Constraint: A study of this magnitude requires a huge some of money to source and analyse data. Due to financial constraint the researcher could not cover all the commercial banks in delta state.
⦁ Time Constraint: A study of this nature would normally require years to complete. That much needed time was not there but the work has to be carried out within a stipulated period of time.
⦁ Attitude of respondents: Few of the respondents were reluctant to give vital information since they were not certain of the implication of doing so. :
DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
In the course of the study, the following terms were used.
1. Training: A systematic acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitude required by an individual to perform a task adequately.
2. EMLOYEE Performance: An increase in employee’s productivity, being able to meet a set objective effectively and efficiently.
3. Goal: This means objects of one’s effort. It can also mean one’s target
4. Job: A piece of work either to be done or completed.
PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATIONS UNDER STUDY
United Bank for Africa Plc
The United Bank for Africa Plc has its antecedents rooted in its predecessor, the British and French Bank Limited. The British and French Bank itself metamorphosed from (BNPCI) Paris, Banque Nationale Poule Commerce and Industries, established in 1932.
In May 1949, the British and French Bank began operation in Nigeria, at 117 Broad Street, Lagos. On February 23, 1961, the United Bank for Africa limited was incorporated to take over the assets and liabilities of the British and French Bank. The official opening of the bank for business under the new name was on October, 3, 1961. Its registered office was at 127 - 129 Broad Street, Lagos and Mr. F. Delajugie was its first General Manager with the establishment of UBA, it became the first bank among the international banks operating in Nigeria at the time to be registered under the Nigerian law, its paid-up capital was over four million naira.
Today’s United Bank for Africa Plc is the product of the merger of Nigeria’s third (3rd) and fifth (5th) largest banks namely the old UBA and the erstwhile Standard Trust
Bank Plc (STB) respectively, and a subsequent acquisition of the erstwhile Continental Trust Bank Limited (CTB). The union emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigerian Banking Industry.
Their history dates back to the founding of the old UBA in 1961, and the erstwhile STB and CTB both in 1990. Although today’s UBA emerged at a time of industry consolidation induced by regulation, the consolidated UBA was borne out of a desire to lead the domestic sector to a new era of global relevance by championing the creation of the Nigeria’s consumer finance market, leading a private and public sector partnership at supporting the acceleration of Nigeria’s economic development, and growing the institution from a banking to a one stop financial services institution, while spreading its foot prints across Africa to earn the reputation as the face of banking in the continent.
Today, the consolidated UBA is the largest financial services institution West African with total assets in excess of one trillion, six hundred million naira (over USD 14 billion) and operating out of 7 economics in the West Central and East African Sub- Region. Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Cameroon, Cote d’ivoir, Liberia and Sierra Leone. It has over seven hundred (700) retail distribution centres across Nigeria, its main operational base, 16 branches in Ghana, 5 branches in Uganda and Cameroon. Outsides Africa, it also has presence in New York, Cayman Island, London and Paris.
UBA provides employment directly or indirectly to 13,000 employees who fondly refers to themselves at UBA Lions and Lionesses. The Bank’s “best-place-to-work- initiative” has created a harmonious work environment through which young graduates have grown and transformed into accomplished and well motivated professionals. Their (UBA) employees are, without doubt, the strongest assets of the
bank as they constitute the driving force of all the group’s business and values. In fact, both customers and competitors alike agree that there is something positively unique about the UBA individual.
Their strategy starts from the point and method of recruitment which emphasizes merit and a strong fit with our shared values, to the point of training and development and retraining to imbibe the value of operating norms. All of this combines with the highly competitive environment to transform ordinary graduates of different institutions in Nigeria and overlaps to accomplished and well motivated professionals of the finest blend, with burning desire for self-actualization.
First Bank of Nigeria Plc
First Bank of Nigeria is a Nigerian bank and financial services firm. First Bank traces its ancestry back to the first major financial institution founded in Nigeria; hence the name. The current chairman is Dr. Ayoola Oba Otudeko, OFR. The bank is the largest retail lender in the nation, while most banks gather funds from consumers and loan it out to large corporations and multinationals, First Bank has created a small market for some of its retail clients.
At the end of August 2006, the bank had assets totaling 650 billion naira or $5 billion dollars. The bank was also the most highly capitalized stock on the Nigerian Stock Exchange, and had about 10 billion outstanding shares. It has a subsidiary in the United Kingdom, FBN Bank (UK), which has a branch in Paris. The bank also has representative offices in South Africa and China.
The company was named the best bank in Nigeria by Global finance magazine in September 2006. The firm’s auditors are Akintola Williams Deloitte & Touche
(Chartered Accountants) and KPMG Audit (Chartered Accountants). The firm has solid short and long term ratings from Fitch and the Global Credit Rating Company partly due to its low exposure to non-performing loans. The firm’s compliance with financial laws has also strengthened with the Economic Financial Crimes Commission giving it a strong rating.
The Bank traces its history back to 1894 and the Bank of British West Africa. The bank originally served the British shipping and trading agencies in Nigeria. The founder, Alfred Lewis Jones, was a shipping magnate who originally had a monopoly on importing silver currency into West Africa through his Elder Dempster shipping company. According to its founder, without a bank, economies were reduced to using barter and a wide variety of mediums of exchange, leading to unsound practices. A bank could provide a secure home for deposits and also a uniform medium of exchange. The bank primarily financed foreign trade, but did little lending to indigenous Nigerians, who had little to offer as collateral for loans.
In 1957, Bank of British West Africa changed its name of Bank of West Africa (BWA). After Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the bank began to extend more credit to indigenous Nigerians. At the same time, citizens began to trust British banks since there was an ‘independent’ financial control mechanism and more citizens began to patronize the new Bank of West Africa.
In 1965, Standard Bank of South Africa acquired Bank of West Africa and changed its acquisition’s name to Standard Bank of West Africa. In 1969, Standard Bank of West Africa incorporated its Nigerian operations under the name Standard Bank of Nigeria. In 1971, Standard Bank of Nigeria listed its shares on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and placed 13% of its share capital with Nigerian investors. After the end
of the Nigerian civil war, Nigeria’s military government sought to increase local control of the retail-banking sector. In response, now Standard Chartered Bank reduced its stake in Standard Bank Nigeria to 38%. Once it had lost majority control, Standard Chartered wished to signal that it was no longer responsible for the bank and the bank changed its name to First Bank of Nigeria in 1979.
In 1982 First Bank opened a branch in London, that in 2002 it converted to a subsidiary, FBN Bank (UK). Its most recent international expansion was the opening in 2004 of a representative office in Johannesburg, South Africa. In 2005 it acquired MBC International Bank Ltd. and FBN (Merchant Bankers) Ltd. Paribas and a group of Nigerian investors had founded MBC in 1982 as a merchant bank; it had become a commercial bank in 2002.
In June 2009, Stephen Olabisi Onasanya was appointed Group Managing Director (CEO), replacing Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, who had been appointed governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria.
Access Bank of Nigeria Plc
In 1989 Access Bank became one of the largest banks in Nigeria by assets and capitalization. The bank commenced operations in February 1989 and provides universal banking services to multinationals, large domestic corporate SMEs.
In 2005 the bank executed a merger with three other banks; equity Bank of Nigeria Plc, Global Bank Plc and Gateway Bank Plc. It was the first time in Nigeria’s banking history that four banks had merged. The bank has recorded an impressive financial performance for the year ending February 2006 with operating income for the period stood at $239 million.
Access Bank Plc in 2009 was one of the few banks that survived the incidence of going underground and has been operating effectively and efficiently till-date.
Armer, P. (1970) Personnel Psychology, VGM Career Horizous Pub.
Casio, G. A. (1993) Management Theory and Practice. (4th edition) London, DP Publications Ltd.
Garavan, T. et al (1995) “The Emergence of Strategic Human Resources Development” Journal of European Industrial Training. 9 (10)
Ubeku K.A. (1975) “Personnel Management in Nigeria” Benin City, Ethiope Publishing Coy..