TECHNIQUES FOR SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS: A SUPERVISORY MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY).
1.1 Introduction: Every organization is established to carry our certain results. The activities may be to change the form of some raw materials or to do something in a particular way. The result of such activities may come in the form of goods or services. Changing the form of wheat flour by adding some ingredients like butter, sugar and yeast produced commodity called bread. Similarly, drawing some patterns on a card-board using some assorted colours of inks may produce trade commodities called Art Work for such an organization known as Art studio some organization produce services such as installation or repair of electricity equipment, painting of structures, repair of shoes and others. The productivity of organizations that supply goods and services is measured by the efficiency of the organization in carry out its functions, if a company is efficient; it will achieve the maximum possible output from the least combination input resources. Productivity does not, as a matter of fact, mean production or output. It means the radio of output to input in quantitative terms productivity = output /input in carrying out the activities for which an organization is established such an organization will employ various categories of people to work on the input resources so as to produce the desired output. The people employed by organization are classified into two (2) broad categories; management and non management employee. The study is concerned with management category.
The individuals in this category are referred to as managers. Management of organization exercise certain functions such as planning the work, management require the discipline to do your home work in advance, that is, create a complete management plan before you start operation and you continue to update it and revise it every year thereafter. The decision of advanced planning can spell the difference between success and failure. The achievement of any successful management demand high level of coordinating in every area of management activity both large and small management without planning and motivation in any management no success is possible. Work planning help to organizing people to do the work motivating people to reach peak performance, monitoring the sequence of work and controlling the quality of performance against the predetermined standards management uses the plan to ensure the work of the organization to ensure that performance is, as far as possible in line with the objectives of the organization. Even when the functions of management are well defined, the is no guarantee that people will play their roles of those in authority do not oversee the work of their subordinate for this reason, supervision becomes the thread, which runs through every function of management and links them with the efficiency of the organization. Manager uses the functions of planning to exert supervision over the performance of the organization. In the every other function of management for instance, when the manager is organizing people, he is supervising their grouping into technically viable units when he is motivating the worker, he is supervising to makes the work meaningful so that those who must do the work will try to tune its execution to the goal of the work.
When he is coordinating the workers, he is exerting supervision to tune the various acts and means to the reaching of the common goal. When the manager is training the worker, he is assisting the worker to form better work concept for the furtherance of the technical qualities of the work. When the manager is controlling, he is exerting supervision to monitor the progress of work, to monitor the use of resources, comparing actual performance with plan. The result of this comparison should lead to signaling of error and deviations, signaling of deviation through supervision may activate the manager to correct the problem. From this observation, we can see that the technique for successful supervision content of the functions of management is the major determinant of the productivity of an organization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The success of organizations depends to a large extent on the quality of supervision by management. When scientific principles tools and techniques are applied in running the affairs of an organization the productivity of the organization is envisioned the organization attempts survival and growth.
However, an organization is managed on the “rule of thumb” basis within proper management functions, the organization runs the risk of getting into problems; it may possibly get close to or into the business grave yard bankruptcy Taylor (Henper, 1911 P:30) .
Government initiated companies generally fall to the category of organization that get into category of organization that get into problems including bankruptcy. The Akwa Ibom Transport cooperation which is the case study became distressed and lost operating capacity in the recent past is currently undergoing a revival programmes. Thus, even though the company may be fairing well in its operations at the moments, a repeat of the last problem cannot be derruled unless the techniques for successful management supervision is assessed and confirmed.
Going into history, we find a perennial nature of failures around government initiated enterprises. According to Omu (1978:3)” it has been observed that public companies funded by government have not been fairing as well as similar companies, funded by private capital, funded by private capital, and managed as private enterprises”. Boards and co-operation have performed worse. In the same manger, a commissioner in charge of state enterprises took time off to undertake and public a comprehensive survey of state parastatals under his super vision, asserted that supervision problem is real hence the existence of an array of failing public enterprises in our nation, (Esenam, 1983;8). The question after asked is; when were the boards and management ranks when the enterprises derailed from the purpose for when they were established?
Apparently, alluding to this short fall Ekpott (1983, 97) devoted a chapter on “The duties and responsibilities of chief executives and distinct from the board”. At the individual level, problem of poor personnel organization for successful supervision are as rampant, as poor group relations which breed conflicts and crisis at work. Some supervisors are autocratic while others are liberal to the point of scare resources. It is the observation of the dwindling fortunes of supervisory management in most organizations in our nation, notwithstanding the existence of boards, general management and first line supervisors that has prompted the researcher to attempt to probe the supervision content of managerial activities within an identified organizational setting with a view to relating success on the overall productivity.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Using Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo as the case study the study aim at:
1. To identify some techniques necessary for productivity apart from work supervision.
2. To find out if work supervision is in use by management in Akwa Ibom Transport company.
3. To appraise the success of supervisory management functions on the work behaviour of subordinates.
4. To find out the supervisory techniques which employees of Akwa Ibom Transport Company would wish to adopt.
5. To establish supervision contribution to organizational productivity.
1.4 Research Question
1. Is work supervision in use by management in Akwa Ibom Transport Company.
2. What are the possible effects of supervisory management function on the work behaviour of subordinate?
3. What supervisory attitudes would employees of Akwa Ibom Transport Company wish to adopt?
4. What other factors can affect productivity apart from work supervision?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HQ: Supervision does not contribute to successful organizational productivity.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The value of supervision in an organizational productivity cannot be under estimated since management responsibility stretches from planning through monitoring and control; it is the quality of supervision which determined;
1. How each function of management success.
2. The success of the organization in achieving its goals. Attainment of organization and goals touches on efficiency in the procedures for:
a) Setting and updating organizational objectives policies and targets.
b) Quality of short-term and long-term planning of resources.
c) Organizational charting for span of control and two-way communication flow.
d) Personal administration to achieve work peak performance through objectivity in recruitment, placement, training motivating discipline and welfare.
e) The discipline of data retrieval analysis and correction of variances from predetermined performance standard.
The study was focused specially or critical techniques for successful supervisory management on organizational productivity relative to supervisory management in Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study called for the active participation of people in supervisory management position in more than one organization in order to provide a basic for companies. The short period of time and resources available for this study was a handicap in doing a comprehensive work on this vital field of knowledge. To this extent the study was limited to the oppression o supervisory management in Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo.
1.8 Significance of the Study
In most organizations, management spends a considerable portion of their time ”doing” tasks that could have been accomplished by their subordinate under their supervision. Such a practice affects management techniques on the efficiency or the productivity of their organizations.
The findings of this study will offer suggestions on factors which promote productivity at work more ever; this research will yield findings that will provides managers of an organizations and of the overall economy, students, researcher, workers and the general public with a new focus towards resolving the long standard problem of organizational facilities in our society.
The research will correct the wrong impression that the word “supervision” refers only to that low level head of a work group; it will assist people to know the relevance of supervision at all levels of organizational structures and how each level from the board room to the shop floor must contribute to corporate supervision discipline and productivity.
Furthermore, the research will confirm what is often taken from granted that the various tools and techniques of management science are there not for their own sake or for intellectual purpose, but to attain the degree of supervision that enhances organizational efficiency.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one discussed such issues as background to the study statement of the problem, scope of the study, among others. While chapter two (2) contains the review of literature related to the problem under study. The topic discussed in chapter three (3) is the research methodology. In chapter four (4), the data presented, analyzed and interpreted; while the final chapter was the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion of the study.
1.10 Historical Background of the Study
The creation of Akwa Ibom State in (1987) changes the status of Uyo as a state capital which before then was only a local government headquarters. This change of status brought about an increasing influx of people into the town, with its attendant, social, economic, administrative and other problems. Among these problems transportation became a very disturbing one. It became difficult for people to move about especially within the Uyo City.
Akwa Ibom Transport Company limited change into being with the presidential directive embodies in the budget speech of January 1, 1988 in that budget the Federal urban mass transit programme (new Agency) was set up in an effect. To ease mass transportation problems in the country. The government of Akwa Ibom State saw this as a rare opportunity and took advantage of it to establish a task force on transportation in February 8, 1988. The new out pit set out on, its maiden Journey on February 11, 1988 with eight (8) buses. Its initial intention was to commute the local government areas then, and pick Civil servants to and from work at Uyo and new state capital.
Later in 1988, the task force on transportation became a state transport corporation with added responsibilities. On February 10, 1989, the corporation was incorporated as a private limited liability with N 1m share capital fully paid up.
The objective of the company is to provide dependable reliable and affordable means of transportation to the people. Thus, the establishment of the mass transit outfit in the state.
Over the years, Akwa Ibom Transport Corporation had evolved into a dependable transport company. However, between 1993-1993-mid 1996s the company fortunes began to decline and finally took a leap into the woods with only eight (8) serviceable vehicles through in very poor state, left in its fleet.
The state government come to the rescue of the company by guaranteeing her a loan of N12.25m. since year 2000, 12.25m loan had been paid up to the creditor.
Today Akwa Ibom Transport Company is official transport company of Nsik Nigeria. Akwa Ibom Transports Company provides services such as inter-state services and group booking services. They have offices in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Her branches include Lagos, Benin, Abakaliki Port-Harcourt, Uyo, Calabar, Asaba, Enugu, Onisha, Kaduna, Jos, Abuja, Warri, Akure, Ibadan, Aba, Eket, Oron etc.
The company is structured into four (4) functional department viz (a) Administration /personnel (b) Transports (operations) (c) Accounts (d) technical services.
Fig 1.11 structure of Akwa Ibom Transport Company, Uyo.
Source: Akwa Ibom Transport Company, Uyo
Each of the department is headed
By qualified personnel who reports
to the general manager on the daily
running of the company.
The company‘s operation traverse the length and the breath of the country. For instance the company’s operation is divided into two viz inter-state and intra-state. Intra-state has to do with counting passengers to the various Local Government and Major Street in the state while inter-state related to operation to distance routes- Lagos, Jos, Abuja etc.
Transport is a very lucrative venture; it depends on the method and or strategy adopted as well as management skill. Any management worth its salt would always be conscious of the need to succeed by working hard to achieve set goals. Besides, it is worthy of note that Akwa Ibom Transport Co-operation has ample room for expansion or a widen it scope. This is more so because it as an opportunity to diversify into other related areas namely; water and air transportation if properly managed. The company could become a pace setter in state transport management in the country with its past and present tract records Vis-a Vis its ultra modern terminal with facilities which is second to none, the sky would be the limit for the company.
Viewed from the above premise therefore, the researcher believes that despite all impediments earlier enumerated, an efficient and prudent management of available resources as well as periodic injection of new vehicles into fleet of the company can result in the growth and profitability of Akwa Ibom Transport Company.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
TECHNIQUES: According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, this is simple a special skill or way of doing something.
SUCCESSFUL: Mean having the result or effect that you intended.
SUPERVISORY: To be charge if an activity or person, making sure that work is done properly or people behave correctly.
MANAGEMENT: Drucker (1995:14) management is concerned with the direction, planning and control of an enterprise.
ORGANIZATION: According to Umoh (2006:6) is coming together of group of people that specialize in different fields, co-ordinate their effort towards the set goal, supervise through some hierarchy of authority do that objectives of organization will be achieved.
PRODUCTIVITY: According to Anugwo M. (2007:141) is the measure of how well resources are utilized for Accomplishing a set of result..