The integration of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) into classroom instruction has been a challenge for the educational systems that aim to cope with the needs and demands of the 21st century. TPACK framework represents the knowledge needed by teachers bringing together content knowledge, technological knowledge and pedagogical knowledge with the aim of integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into teaching-learning processes. There is growing concern on the method of teaching biology. Therefore, the study assessed the TPACK of biology teachers in senior schools. The objectives of the study were to: (i) examine biology teachers’ knowledge about teaching biology topics at the senior school level; (ii) determine the extent to which biology teachers were knowledgeable about modern digital technologies for teaching biology; (iii) ascertain the availability of modern digital technologies for teaching by biology teachers; (iv) determine the form of training possessed by biology teachers with modern digital technologies; and (v) investigate the biology teachers’ level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge based on gender, teaching qualification and teaching experience.

The cross-sectional survey type of descriptive research method was adopted in the study. The total population of biology teachers in Nigeria consisted of 22,675. The target population were 1,122 biology teachers from senior secondary schools in Kwara State. Purposive sampling technique was used based on the teachers that have ICT gadgets in their schools to select 680 sampled biology teachers from the target population. The research instrument that was used in this study was adapted from Archambault and Crippen (2009) and Sahin (2011). Data were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance.

The findings of the study were that:

i. 65.0% of the Senior School biology teachers possessed adequate knowledge about biology topics;

ii. 74.9% of the biology teachers did not possess adequate knowledge about modern digital technologies in teaching of biology topics;

iii. 57.9% of the sampled schools did not possess modern digital technologies in the teaching of biology topics;

iv. 53.5% of the Senior School biology teachers acquired self-training of ICT use in teaching;

v. 74.2% of the biology teachers possessed adequate knowledge of TPACK;

vi. there was a significant difference in the level of TPACK between male and female biology teachers in favour of the female teachers (t=555)-3.467 p<0.05);

vii. there was a significant difference in the level of TPACK between qualified and less qualified biology teachers in favour of less qualified teachers (t=555)-6.288, p<0.05); and

viii. there was significant difference in the level of TPACK of biology teachers' based on teaching experience in favour of the experienced biology teachers (F=3,554) 66.587, p=.003)

The study concluded that biology teachers possessed low level of TPACK. This implies that although biology teachers had good mastery of their subject matter, they do not have ICT-integration in their instructional approach due to lack of ICT knowledge. The study recommended that biology teachers should integrate TPACK in their lessons and its application in teaching so as to solve problem of poor performance in biology.


Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

List of Tables vi

List of Figures viii

Abstract xi


Background to the Problem 1

Statement of the Problem 18

Purpose of the Study 21

Research Questions 22

Research Hypotheses 23

Scope of the Study 24

Significance of the Study 24

Clarification of Major Terms and Variables 26



Theoretical Framework of the Study 31

The Nature and Components of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge 47

Models of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and

Teachers Instructional Applications of ICTs 58

Empirical Studies on Measuring and Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content knowledge 69

Empirical Studies on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Gender 74

Empirical Studies on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Teachers’ Qualification 76

Empirical Studies on Teachers Experience and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge 80

Appraisal of the Reviewed Literature 83


Research Type 89

Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques 90

Research Instrument 90

Validation of Research Instrument 91

Procedure for Data Collection 92

Data Analysis Techniques 93





Discussion 114

Conclusions 126

Implication of the Study 127

Recommendations 128

Suggestions for Further Studies 131









Background to the Problem

Science has brought to education many valuable indentures of learning and instruction with considerable stress put on the relevance of the visual approach to instruction. All over the world, teachers are becoming more aware of new teaching strategies and classroom tools that integrate the inquiry-based learning. But most schools are filled up with teachers and pseudo-educators with lesson notes, methods and approaches that have lost relevance in a changing world. Science, which is the bedrock of national development, according to Abimbola (2013), is a body of knowledge, a way or method of investigating, and a way of thinking in the pursuit of understanding nature.

Biology is the branch of science that deals with living things and their crucial actions. The field deals with all the physicochemical features of life. The advance inclination about cross-disciplinary research and the merger of scientific knowledge and investigation from diverse fields have led to the relevant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Advanced principles of other fields such as Chemistry, Medicine, and

Physics, for instance are merged with those of Biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics(Rogers, Joshi, &Green 2019).

Biology is the science of life, with its focus on the structure, function, distribution, and evolution of the organism (LiveScience, 2017). It is an autonomous natural science discipline composed of two major fields namely, functional biology and historical biology. Functional biology deals with life processes at both genome and cellular levels. It can be detailed with the natural laws of physical sciences such as chemistry and physics. Historical, otherwise known as Evolutionary biology, is concerned with the explanation of all aspects of the living world that have to do with the dimension of historical time (LiveScience, 2017).

Furthermore, biology is the branch of science that involves the study of life and that addresses societal problems such as population explosion, environmental pollution, global warming, drug addiction, food insecurity, and healthy living among others which are taught during biology lessons in secondary schools. Fish farming is also made possible through the teaching of Biology (Barbara, 2017). The importance of biology studies in the life of individuals cannot be underrated. In the past 10 years, in Nigeria, biology that was previously a compulsory subject for all senior secondary school students has been made non-compulsory especially for non-science students.

This evolution arises with some concerns for science educators, particularly as it relates to capacity building and application of the subject in the life of all (Akingbemisilu & Ayegbo,2019).

Four fundamental issues are advanced: (a) enhancement of the curriculum; (b) scheming of various instructional methods and strategies; (c) teaching materials; and (d) enhancing the status of the secondary school biology teachers. It would appear that there is an agreement among professionals in the field of teacher education that focuses on upgrading the quality of the teacher which has a higher benefit (Shulman, 1986). This is true because the best curriculum and the very effective teaching method can decline in the hand of a poorly prepared teacher. A highly competent teacher is more likely to produce good students through the effective use of appropriate instructional strategies and materials than an incompetent teacher.

The constant poor academic performance of Nigerian students at secondary schools level is becoming disturbing. A number of factors has been attributed to be liable for the ugly performance. Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) are the two prominent teacher-related factors responsible for the students’ poor performance (Niess, 2013). The teacher

needs an articulation of knowledge to effectively deliver instruction in the classroom. This knowledge comprises content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge of students’ conception.

The consolidation of these knowledge realms is framed as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Loughranm, Mulhall, and Berry (2004) opined that PCK is a unique combination of content and pedagogy that is singularly constructed by teachers and thus, is a peculiar type of an educators’ professional understanding. PCK is expressed as a separate category of knowledge with its solitary identifiers (Magnusson, Krajcik, & Borko, 1999). Studies have established that PCK significantly enhances teachers’ effectiveness (Loughranm, Berry, & Mulhall, 2004). It is a unique type of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge that is developed and based on experience over time.

This kind of professional knowledge was first identified by Shulman (1987). Astoundingly, studies in this field have constantly displayed no connection between subject matter knowledge and pedagogic content knowledge (Parker & Heywood, 2000). Consequently, irrespective of a secondary school biology teachers’ subject content knowledge, teachers still need to upgrade their pedagogical content knowledge for effective teaching and meaningful learning to occur. The PCK evolved through the integration

of subject matter knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge and it is considered by most educators as the most important element in teaching.


Figure1. Model of the Elements of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Source: Bello and Abimbola (2015).

Figure 1 shows the intermediation of the three fundamental knowledge components of PCK. The integration of teachers’ content knowledge and teachers’ pedagogical knowledge results to the knowledge of curriculum, while the combination of the teachers’ content knowledge and the subject matter knowledge of the students leads to the knowledge of

educational context. More so, the teachers’ understanding of student subject matter knowledge with the pedagogical knowledge leads to the knowledge of the purpose of education. A study is purposeful in establishing characteristics of Pedagogical Content Knowledge and studying the psychometric properties of the definition. While lack of agreement mostly considering the level of analysis that is appropriate for it.

According to Borowski, Neuhaus, Tepner, Wirth, Fischer, Leutner, (2010) in a theory of action, it was proposed that intervention, such as professional development, affects the teachers’ knowledge bases. These knowledge bases comprise academic content knowledge (ACK), general pedagogical knowledge (GenPK) and content-specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The interaction of these six components will bring about teachers’ knowledge of PCK (Bello & Abimbola, 2015).

The integration of modern digital Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the classrooms to meet the needs of the 21st century has added a new dimension to teaching and learning process (Kyriakidou, Chrisostomou, & Banks, 1999; Yapici & Hevedanli, 2012). Teachers now need to acquire basic ICT knowledge and skills as part of the requirements to deliver educational services through ICT platforms. There is a trend toward many ICT applications becoming a general knowledge that has

become an open source to all and sundry, which in turn, has brought about the improvement of the standard of various ICT developers across the globe (Information Communication and Technology & Sustainable Development Goals, 2017). Keeping in mind the advantages of integrating ICT into instruction, teachers must be aware of the latest ICT resources for teaching.

According to the Benchmark for Science Literacy sets by American Association for the Advancement of Science, (2013), understanding the nature of technology is one of 12 standard-based areas that science teachers should help their students achieve in their science learning. Functioning as a tool that keeps civilisation advancing, technology is taken as the means and the goals for curriculum design. Besides making science teaching and learning less strenuous, teaching with technology can also get students acquainted with the latest technological tools and prepare them to solve problems with those tools. Though learning science with technology seems a win-win idea for both the development of science literacy and technological literacy, the ways in which teachers utilise technology to assist their science instruction are also critical to students’ learning. (AAAS, 2013).

Teachers can apply technology in instruction in various ways depending on the attributes of the concept they are teaching and the ICT gadget they are using. Some teachers use technology to create worksheets or

assignments as well as ask students to use computers to complete assignments, thus, increasing the number of major activities in teaching that involve technology (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2013). Modern digital ICT is an integral component of the 21st century. Its applications extend to every facet of human daily activities at every level of the society. For example, in the education sector, instructional technologies have brought about significant novelties to teachers and their classroom instruction. Karasavvidis and Kollias (2014) noted that the use of modern digital ICT in the class will transform teaching and learning practices, and the quality of students’ learning experiences making them more, interesting and appealing to the students, thereby enhance meaningful learning.

Hicks (2006) observed that teachers with more experience in the use of modern digital ICT in education use to maintain higher prospects for students learning, while Angeli and Valanides (2005)stated that the use of modern ICT enhances students’ performance and that, teachers should have knowledge in;

⦁ identifying subjects to be learnt with educational technology in a manner that will express the value of educational technology applications,

⦁ determining representation for displaying the context in an understandable manner which seems hard to teach using traditional methods;

⦁ recognising teaching strategies which suit learners’ needs;

⦁ selecting suitable educational technology tools which are accompanied with veritable information transformation and teaching strategies, and

⦁ integrating classroom practice with educational technology.

Although many teachers are now using modern digital technology in the class, they often do so purely as an extension of the traditional teaching and learning models. Some key factors tend to discourage teachers from integrating modern digital ICT into the teaching and learning process Richmond Public Schools (2018), noted that some of the factors include: low level of teaching experience, negative perceptions of technology, insufficient on-site time or financial support, insufficient time to fulfill the task of teaching with technology and increased requirements for students to operate technology in the classroom.

Some other barriers that inhibit teachers’ incorporation of technology into their teaching include conflicting pedagogical beliefs from external sources and the lack of proper assessments reflecting students’ learning from technology-supported curricula among others (Richmond Public Schools,

2018). Most of the aforementioned challenges would be solved if teachers are more open-minded to technology implementation in instruction and focus on developing ideas on how technology could assist their instruction in the classroom. Niess (2005) and Angeli and Valanides (2013), suggested that the terms “technology PCK” and “ICT-related PCK” respectively to describe the knowledge required by teachers to integrate modern ICT into the process of teaching and learning. This realm of knowledge is called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK).

The basic components of TPACK include content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and technological knowledge (TK). The synergy between these three essential forms of knowledge lead to pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological content knowledge (TPK) and the TPACK. As a form of knowledge, TPACK is being portrayed as well-fixed, complicated, multifarious, integrative and transformative concept (Angeli & Valanides, 2009). TPACK is also seen as the set of knowledge that teacher develops from and for teaching with technology (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The development of the concept of TPACK stacked upon the belief of Shulman’s 1986 on PCK, enhancing the level of comprehension of the active

interaction among the various forms of knowledge that support the practice of teachers.

The wide range of research that grew along with, and from the evolution of the TPACK construct has also supplied a deeper understanding of how teachers’ knowledge is related to pedagogical integration of digital technologies in educational contexts. Literature in TPACK has presented several knowledge enhancement processes (Mishra, 2012), multiple standard of measurement tools Cavanaugh and Koehler, (2013); Chai, Koh, and Tsai, (2016) and many empirical approaches (Koehler, Shin, & Mishra, 2012; Archambault, 2016) for identifying and comprehending teacher’s knowledge of TPACK.

Integrating technology into teaching and learning process does not mean achieving the desired result as noted by Koehler and Mishra (2009). Graham, Burgoyne, Cantrell, Smith, Clair, and Harris, (2009), stated that educators have come to share common view that a fundamental knowledge of how to utilise technological tools isn’t enough; the most important thing is the ability to use those tools thoroughly in order to enhance meaningful learning by the students. Thus, research interest has concentrated on methods to unify and integrate technological tools in teaching and the learning process.

TPACK has been presented as a framework for teachers’ knowledge needed for productive technology integration (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, 2008; Koehler & Mishra, 2008; 2008). A growing body of research according to Gess- Newsome (2002) shows that students’ achievement is more strongly influenced by teachers’ quality than by students’ race, class, prior academic record, or the school a student attends. This is particularly significant among students from low-income families. The advantages of being taught by good teachers are quite cumulative. Therefore, a teacher must possess the following knowledge to be effective:

1. Technological Knowledge (TK): Is the knowledge about the distinct technologies, ranging from low-tech technology such as pencil and paper to digital technology such as the internet, digital video, interactive whiteboard, and others. It refers to the knowledge of all forms of technology and not just computers.

2. Content Knowledge (CK): The knowledge that a teacher has on biology or Science subjects which he or she teaches; it covers the knowledge linked to a subject matter.

3. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK): The knowledge of the teacher about the methods and customs of teaching and learning. It includes knowledge about the conduct and organisation of the classroom; curricular analysis and planning; and student’s learning.

4. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK): Comprehending how various technology tools can be used in teaching, along with the belief that making use of technology can bring about change in the way teachers improve their practices and develop their professional operation.

5. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK): This is the knowledge of how technology can form new exhibitions and new learning models for specific contents

6. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): A form of knowledge that integrates both the content and pedagogy with the view of improving the instructional practices in the content area.

7. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): required by teachers for integrating technology into their instruction and content area. Teachers have to reach the knowledge of the intricate interrelations existing between the three basic components of

knowledge (CK, PK, and TK) which is revealed in their ability to teach using the suitable pedagogical methods and technologies.


Figure2. Conceptual Model of the Elements of TPACK as Developed from Literature

The various components of TPACK and their descriptions as explained by Mishra & Koehler, (2006) is summarized in Table 1.

These knowledge components can be effective when they interplay with each other. The integration of TK, CK, PK, TPK, PCK, and TCK will give TPACK.


Figure 3. The TPACK framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006)

Table 1: The Various Components of TPACK and their descriptions as explained by Mishra and Koehler (2016)

TPACK Knowledge Types and Their Descriptions

Knowledge Type Description

Technological Knowledge

(TK) Knowledge and skills of traditional,

current and emerging technologies

Content Knowledge (CK) Knowledge about the subject matter for teaching and learning.

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Knowledge about methods and process of teaching, such as

classroom management, assessment

and student teaching

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) The tacit of blending content and pedagogy for developing better

teaching practices

Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) The tacit of blending content and technology for developing better

teaching practices.

Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Knowledge of the affordances of technologies and what teaching strategies can be combined with those affordances to leverage

learning outcomes

Technological Pedagogical Content

Knowledge (TPACK) Teachers’ understanding of the interplay among content, pedagogy and technology as well as the procedural knowledge of integrating technologies into their teaching


(Mishra & Koehler, 2006)

The integration of modern digital technology into the classroom could significantly bridge the gap in the performance of male and female students according to Koh, Chai, and Tsai (2015) since the newer generations are more technologically literate. Female teachers may be weak in TK but they acquire better Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge that complement the knowledge gap. Similarly, male teachers were discovered to possess lower Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge but their Technology Knowledge helps to alleviate the weaknesses (Shaharom & Faridah, 2010). A good mastery and integration of all the seven TPACK dimensions by the teacher could narrow the gap between male and female

students’ performance. Similarly, the seven TPACK dimensions could also go a long way in reducing the difference in teachers’ qualification.

Teacher qualification in the view of Alazam, Bakar, Hamzah, and Asmiran (2013) is a major determinant of learning. Teachers have to be creative, innovative and qualify in specific field to meet the requirements of the educational system. They also need to continuously improve upon their professional knowledge and skills after completing their teacher education programme. In addition to qualification, teachers’ experience is also a crucial factor in the development of TPACK.

Typically, teacher preparation programmes require pre-service teachers to enroll in one course that focuses on learning about technology (Gronseth, Brush, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Strycker, Abaci, Easterling, & Leusen, 2010), while others have attempted to introduce technology into other courses in education like educational psychology or methods of teaching (Wetzel, Foulger, Buss & Lindsey, 2014). So far, there is a great anticipation on the pre-service teachers convey naturally the knowledge of technology and proficiency they learnt from courses in their preparation programs to their future classrooms. However, just by having pre-service teachers undertake these courses may not necessarily resolve the problem of transfer of knowledge and it application of technology into their future

classrooms. Evidence suggests that pre-service teachers still do not feel adequately prepared to effectively use technology in teaching (Polly, McGee, & Martin, 2010).

Statement of the Problem

The availability of ICT gadgets in school does not imply technology integration into teaching and learning process. There is a trend toward many ICT applications as becoming generally applicable, this allows for benefits made by one developer to be picked up and improve upon by other developers. The differences in how technology is seen and utilised by every educational stakeholder are impeding the positive impacts that technology can make to students’ learning outcome. Although the integration of technological, pedagogical, and content, is presently receiving lots of attention in the educational world, there is no evidence that teachers are adequately integrating these components into their teaching.

Information about effective methods for assessing teacher TPACK is also not sufficient in science or any other subject area. Most of the studies focus more on Science Teachers’ TPACK-Practical: Standard-setting Using an Evidence-based Approach (Jen,Yeh, Hsu, Wu, & Chen, 2016). Mastery

of Content Representation (CoRes) Related TPACK High School Biology Teacher (Nasution, Sriyati, Riandi and Safitri,2017), The role of TPACK in physics classroom: case studies of pre-service physics teachers (Niwat,2012), Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Animal Physiology (Pusparini, Riandi, & Sriyati, 2017)

Due to limited available measures, survey research on TPACK has gained much attention. More so, these studies have either focused their attention on cross-validating ranks of teachers or see how teachers master their content specific to integrate technology. Some studied challenges teachers face teaching with technology or rather impact of TPACK on teaching and learning process. None has talked about assessing the teachers' knowledge of TPACK in teaching biology.

Teachers’ views of their technological abilities and their perception concerning the advantages of ICT for classroom instruction have been shown to be strong predictors of a planned and determined usage of these tools. However, in searching for the best practices to improve teachers for effective learning to take place, the most significant factor of school variables to be considered are the teachers, researchers, and policymakers. Surprisingly, not much work has been done in the aspect of assessing and improving teachers’ knowledge of ICT application to the teaching of science

content area. The poor performance of students on the consistent basis in biology in Nigerian schools is becoming disturbing (Pusparini, Riandi, & Sriyati, 2017).

However, several factors have been attributed to be the leading cause of students’ failure in biology. Some of these factors are: they include the poor reading habit of students, the distraction of global information and technology, parental factors, teachers’ PCK, and most recently, teachers’ TPACK (Niwat, 2012). This study was set to underpin the major problems faced by teachers in teaching with technology. It is to be noted that, the society is technologically driving, hence, teachers’ effort can best be appreciated with the integration of ICT into the process of instruction. More so, teachers who use technology will be better placed than teachers who do not (Niwat, 2012). There have been several attempts to study the effect of teachers’ subject matter knowledge on students’ achievement. The result is achieved by assessing differences in students’ outcomes for teachers with various academic specifications. However, lots of potential gaps still need to be occupied by TPACK which could enhance greater transformation in education.

Few studies concentrated on the integration of teachers’ knowledge of ICT into the teaching process in the classroom more importantly in the area

of biology which makes this study different from other studies. In concrete terms, technology won’t replace teachers but teachers who use technology will probably replace teachers who do not. The need to strengthen the teaching of biology at the secondary school level appears to be well recognised. Hence, this study addressed the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of biology teachers in senior secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to assess the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of biology teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria.

Specifically, it:

1. examined biology teachers’ knowledge about teaching biology topics at the senior school level.

2. determined the extent to which biology teachers are knowledgeable about modern digital technologies (ICT) for teaching biology.

3. ascertained the availability of modern digital technologies for teaching by biology teachers.

4. determined the form of training biology teachers possess in teaching with modern digital technologies (ICT)

5. Investigate the biology teachers’ level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge.

6. determine biology teachers’ level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge based on gender.

7. determine the level of biology teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge based on teaching qualification.

8. Determine the level of biology teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge based on teaching experience.

Research Questions

In this study, the following questions were raised and answered.

I. What is the extent of biology teachers’ knowledge of teaching biology topics at the senior school level?

II. To what extent are biology teachers’ knowledgeable about the use of modern digital technologies (ICT) for teaching biology?

III. What are the available modern digital technologies for teaching biology in the school?

IV. What types of training do biology teachers acquired for teaching with modern digital technologies (ICT)?

V. To what level are biology teachers knowledgeable about TPACK?

VI. What are biology teachers’ level of knowledge of TPACK based on gender?

VII. To what level are biology teachers knowledgeable about TPACK based on their qualifications?

VIII. What is biology teachers’ level of knowledge of TPACK based on their teaching experience?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were generated from the research questions and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

H0₁: There is no significant difference in the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of male and female biology teachers.

H0₂: There is no significant difference in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of qualified and unqualified biology teachers.

H0₃: There is no significant difference in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge based on the teaching experience (experienced, moderately experienced and less experienced) of biology teachers.

Scope of the Study

The study was carried out among biology teachers in selected public and private senior secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. It focused primarily on the assessment of biology teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Teachers’ gender, teachers’ qualifications, and teachers’ teaching experience were the variables considered in the study.

Significance of the Study

This study could be of great benefit to students, teachers, teacher educators, curriculum planners, Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), Federal and State Ministries of Education, Educational

Consultants, Educational administrators, Researchers and Examination bodies.

The results of this study would stimulate biology teachers to upgrade their TPACK to enhance their teaching effectiveness and efficiency. This would impact positively on students’ learning and performance in biology at the final external examinations such as the Senior School Certificate examinations organized by WAEC, NECO and NABTEB among others. hoped that the findings from this study would encourage school administrators and proprietors to provide essential modern digital ICT tools for teachers and students’ use.

The findings of this study would provide biology teacher educators and teacher education institutions useful insights into the quality of teachers they are producing. This would stimulate them to review approaches adopted in equipping pre-service biology teachers with TPACK.

The findings could sensitize curriculum developers on the need to infuse all elements of TPACK into biology teacher education curricula at all levels. The Biology Panel of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) may be sensitised on the need to organise special workshops and

conferences on TPACK as part of biology teachers’ professional development programme.

Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) may find this study very useful in bringing out areas where teachers training and re-training workshops and seminar could be organised. Federal and State Ministries of Education may find this research highly beneficial in identifying areas where an upgrade in the curriculum is needed. This will expose teachers in training and even in-service to the application of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching. It would also be a basis for educational researchers who will want to take on extended research in this area or related issues. Educational consultants will find this study beneficial in understanding the area to improve and develop their training programmes on and educational packages for teachers to include technology education and integration but not necessarily technology application.

The results of this study would propel researchers in the field of biology education to conduct more studies on biology teachers’ TPACK and also, serve as useful literature material.

Clarification of Major Terms and Variables

The following terms and variables were operationally defined as used in this study:

Technological Knowledge (TK): the knowledge of the different forms of technologies, ranging from low-tech technology such as pencil and paper to digital technology such as the internet, digital video, and interactive whiteboard and many others that biology teachers use in the teaching process.

Content Knowledge (CK): the knowledge that a teacher has in biology concepts which he/she teaches. It covers the knowledge linked to a subject matter.

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK): is the knowledge biology teachers acquire to processes and practices of instruction, it comprises knowledge about the management of classroom and organisation; analysis of curriculum and planning; and overall learning of students in biology.

Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK): the understanding of how various technology devices can be used in teaching biology, along with the assurance that using technology can change the way in which teachers improve their practices.

Technological Content Knowledge (TCK): the knowledge of how technology can create new representations and/or new learning scenarios for specific biology contents

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): the integration of both content and pedagogy with the goal of developing better teaching practices in the biology topics.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): the knowledge needed by teachers for integrating technology into their teaching of biology concepts.

Assessment: an instance of making an observation on how teachers perform their teaching of biology through rating.

Curricular Knowledge: the accumulation of a step by step planned interaction of students and instructional content, material resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational purpose.

Qualified Teacher: is a person who is certified with at least a bachelor degree in Biology and demonstrates competence in the teaching of biology concepts.

Less Qualified Teacher: This is a person who does not possess a minimum teaching requirement of B.Sc. Ed. to teach biology.

Experienced Teacher: a person who has skills or knowledge from the teaching of biology concepts for not less than ten years.

Moderately Experienced Teacher: a teacher who has skills or knowledge in the teaching of biology for not less than 5-10 years.

Less Experienced Teacher: a teacher who has experience in teaching biology for less than five years.

Teachers’ Gender: this is an expression used to signify teachers’ range of identities that not agrees to existing ideas of male and female.




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