ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AIR MICROFLORA IN MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORYOSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE


ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AIR MICROFLORA IN MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORYOSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE 

 ABSTRACT

Nutrient agars and potato Dextrose agar were prepared and poured into petridishes and exposed to the air of microbiology laboratory of Osun State Iree, for 10mins. Bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified. The isolated bacteria were Beallus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE I

CERTIFICATION II

APPROVAL PAGE III

DEDICATIONIV

ACKNOWLEDGMENTV

TABLE OF CONTENT VI

ABSTRACT VII

CHAPTER ONE 

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 – 2 

CHAPTER TWO 

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 3 – 7 

2.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY 7 

CHAPTER THREE 

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS  8

3.1 MATERIALS USED    8

3.2 STERILIZATION OF SAMPLES 8

3.3 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES 8

3.4 PREPARATION OF MEDIA 8

3.5 INOCULATION OF MEDIA 9

3.6 SUB-CULTURING OF MICROBIAL GROWTH 9

3.7 MAINTENANCE OF PURE CULTURE 9

3.8 CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGAL ISOLATES 9

3.9. CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES 9 – 10 

3.9.0 GRAM STAINING 10 

3.9.1 SPORE STAINING 10 

3.9.2 COAGULASE TEST 10 

3.9.3 CATALASE TEST 10 – 11 

3.9.4 MOTILITY TEST 11

3.9.5 IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES      11

CHAPTER FOUR 

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 12 – 14  

CHAPTER FIVE 

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 15 – 16 

REFERENCES      17 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION  

Gases, dust particles, water vapour, and air contain microorganisms. There are vegetable cells and spores of bacteria, fungi, and algae, viruses, and protozoa cysts. Since air is often exposed to sunlight, it has a higher temperature and less moisture. So, if not protected from desiccation. Most of these microbial forms will die. Air serves as a transport or dispersal medium for microorganisms they occur in a relatively small number in the air when compared with soil or water. The microflora of air can be studied under two headings outdoor and indoor microflora. Outdoor Microflora: - The air in the atmosphere, which is found outside the buildings, is referred to as outside air. The dominant microflora of outside air is fungi. The two common genera of fungi are cladosporiul and sporobolomyces, besides these two general, generally found in the air are Aspergillus, Alternaria, Phytophthora, and Erysiphe. The outdoor air also contains besidispores, ascopres of yeast, fragments of mycelium, and canidia of molds. Among the bacterial genera Bacillus and clostridium, sarcina, micrococcus, corynebacterium, and Achromobacter are widely found in the outside air, the number and kind of microorganism may vary from place to place, depending upon the human population densities.

Indoor Microflora: - The air found inside the building is referred to as indoor air. The commonest genera of fungi in indoor air are penicillium, Aspergillus, the Commonest genera of bacteria found in indoor air are Staphylococci, Bacillus, and Clostridium. In the case of occupants being infected, the composition shows slight variations with latitude and to a lesser extent with attitude. The ozone owes its existence in the atmosphere to photosynthesis from oxygen under the influence of solar ultraviolet radiations. (Dr. Shiva, 2009).       There are no microbes are native to the atmosphere rather they represent allochthonous populations transported from aquatic and terrestrial habits into the atmosphere. Microbe of air within 300 – 1,000 or more feet of the Earth’s surface are the organisms of soil that have become attached to fragments of dried leaves, strain, or dust particles, being blown away by the wind. Species vary greatly in their sensitivity to a given value of relative humidity, temperature, and radiation exposure. More microbes are found in the air over land masses than far at sea. Spores of fungi especially Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus are more numerous than other forms over sea within about 400 miles of land in both polar and tropical air masses at all altitudes up to about 10,000 feet. Microbes found in the air over populated land areas below an altitude of 500 feet in clear weather include spores of Bacillus and Clostridium ascospores of yeasts, fragments of mycelium and spores of molds and Streptomycetaceae, pollen protozoan cysts, algae, micrococcus, corynebacterium, etc. In the dust and air of schools and hospital wards or the rooms of persons suffering from infectious disease, microbes such as tubercle bacilli, streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci have been demonstrated. These respiratory bacteria are dispersed in the air in the droplets of saliva and mucus produced by coughing, sneezing, talking, and laughing. Viruses of the respiratory tract and some enteric are also transmitted from the objects contaminated with infectious secretions that after drying become infectious dust. Droplets are usually formed by sneezing, coughing, and talking. Each droplet consists of saliva and mucus and each may contain thousands of microbes. It has been estimated that the number of bacteria in a single sneeze may be between 10,000 and 100,000. Small droplets in a warm dry atmosphere are dry before they reach the floor and thus quickly become droplet nuclei. Many plant pathogens are also transported from one field to another through the air and the spread of many fungal diseases of plants can be predicted by measuring the concentration of airborne fungal spores. The human bacterial pathogen which causes important airborne disease such as diphtheria, meningitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and whooping cough are described in the chapter “Bacterial Disease man” Air does not have an indigenous and flora, though a number of micro-organisms are present in the air. Air is not a natural environment for microorganisms as it doesn’t contain enough moisture and nutrients to support their growth and reproduction. Quite a number of sources have been studied in this connection and almost all of them have been found to be responsible for the air microflora. One of the most common sources of air microflora in the soil. Soil microorganisms when distributed by the wind blow librated into the air and remain suspended therefore along period of time. Man-made actions like digging or ploughing the soil may be release soil born microbes into the air. Similarly, microorganisms found in water may also be released into the air in the form of water droplets or aerosols, splashing of water by wind action a tidal action may also produce droplets or aerosols? 

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AIR MICROFLORA IN MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORYOSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE



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