This work shows a relative abundance of Mangrove in Eastern Obolo riverine areas which is carried out in two strategic locations (such as Okoroete, Iko estuary (Bella creek) all in Eastern Obolo L.G.A.).Iko riverine area and Okoroette riverine area is dominated by true mangrove such as the Red mangrove (28%), Black mangrove (72%) of the total abundance of the true mangrove and the Nypa palm (Nypafruitican). Mangrove forests are the world’s most productive ecosystems. They enrich coastal waters, yield commercial forest products, protect coastlines, and support coastal fisheries. True mangrove was seen to be in high density at Okoroette as the species richness (d) is high (6.523018) in Okoroette and less (4.519672) in Iko (Bella creek), but species abundance is slightly higher in Bella creek (0.544706) than in Okoroette (0.448609). This could be as a result of excessive cut down of mangrove tree at Bella creek for domestic and industrial use by the host community while Okoroette is experiencing growth and recruitment of new individual mangrove plant in the area which will and have contributed to the physical, chemical and biological stability of the area. Mangrove forests in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been deforested and degraded to a large extent due mainly to anthropogenic pressures. There is a need for mapping and strict protection of the remaining mangrove forests in the region. Massive regeneration of deforested and degraded mangrove areas should be carried out urgently, for enhanced ecological roles, socio-economic wellbeing of the people, and climate change adaptation/mitigation. Nypa palm threatened Nigeria's coastal extensive mangrove vegetation by displacing the mangrove stands and establishing itself in a mono-specific manner, the reduction of the potential for natural mechanisms for control of coastal soil erosion and causes general habitat conversion and biodiversity loss with the attendant reduction in biological production potentials of the ecosystem.


Title page                                               Pages

Certification    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

Table of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v


1.0    Introduction      -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    1

1.1    Background of Study         -    -    -    -    -    -    -    1

11    Justification of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    3

1.2    Aim and Objectives      -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    3

CHAPTER TWO                                

2.0    Literature review    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    4

2.1    Mangrove Assemblage in the Environment     -    -    -    -    -    4

2.2    Adaptation of Mangrove to the Environment        -    -    -    -    5

2.3    Reproduction in mangrove     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

2.4    Zonation of mangrove    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

2.5    Economic Importance of Mangrove    -    -    -    -    -    -    7

2.5.1    Ecological and environmental Important     -    -    -    -    -    8

2.5.2    Maintenance of Water Quality     -    -    -    -    -    -    8

2.5.3    Control of Floods     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    9

2.5.4    Protection of Shorelines     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    9

2.5.5    Contribution to coastal productivity     -    -    -    -    -    -    9

2.5.6    Contribution to carbon sequestration     -    -    -    -    -    -    9

2.5.7    Contribution to carbon sequestration     -    -    -    -    -    -    10

2.5.8    Contribution to air quality     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.6.1    Educational Value     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.6.2    Heritage Value     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.6.3    Natural Beauty and Recreation -    -    -    -    -    -    -    12

2.7    Influence of Nypa Palm on Living Organism    -    -    -    -    -    12

2.7.1    Influence of Nypa Palm on Coastal Aquatic Ecosystem    -    -    -    12

2.8    Economic Importance of Nypa palm to the marine ecosystem and humanity     13

2.9    Prevention and Control of Nypa Palm in Iko     -    -    -    -    -    14


3.0    Materials and Methods    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    15

3.1     Study Area    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    15

3.2     Sampling Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    16

3.3    Data Analysis        -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    17


4.0    Results     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    19

4.1    Physicochemical Parameters     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    19

4.2    Mangrove distribution Analysis of Nigerian Coast Line    -    -    -    20


5.0     Discussion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    22

5.1    Physicochemical Parameters        -    -    -    -    -    -    22

5.2    Distribution of Mangrove Vegetation     -    -    -    -    -    23

5.3      Distribution of Nypafrutican        -    -    -    -    -    -    23

5.4    Distribution of True Mangrove    -    -    -    -    -    -    23

5.4    Conclusions    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    24

5.5    Recommendation     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    25

References        -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    27


1.0    Introduction

1.1    Background of Study

Mangroves are defined as assemblages of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs that grow in the intertidal regions of the tropical and subtropical coastlines (Brandon 2012). Mangroves are survived with their roots submerged in water, mangrove trees thrive in hot, muddy, salty conditions that would quickly kill most plants. Mangrove forests are the world’s most productive ecosystems. They enrich coastal waters, yield commercial forest products, protect coastlines, and support coastal fisheries. However, mangroves exist under conditions of high salinity, extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures, and muddy, anaerobic soils. There may be no other group of plants with such highly developed morphological, biological, ecological, and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions (Kathiresanet. al 2001).

Mangrove forests are found worldwide between latitude 300South and 300 north in the tropical and subtropical regions (Kathiresanet. al 2001).

They normally grow poorly in stagnant waters and have abundant growth in the alluvial soil substrates with fine‐textured loose mud or silt, rich in humus and sulphides. They can also be found in substrates other than muddy soil such as coastal reefs and oceanic islands. In such areas, the mangrove plants grow on peat, which is derived from decayed vegetation (Kathiresan 2000). They find it difficult to colonize the coastal zone with waves of high energy and hence they normally establish themselves in sheltered shorelines (Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001).

In Nigeria, mangrove covers an estimated area of 10,515km2; the estimate is based on the survey by Zabbey (Zabbey, 2008). Nigeria’s mangrove, in terms of area covered, is the largest in Africa and the fourth largest in the world; the largest being Indonesia, Brazil, Australia, Nigeria (Nandy and Mitra, 2004). The mangrove forests have been shown to sustain more than 70 direct human activities, ranging from fuel‐wood collection to fisheries (Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006). Also as recorded by Zabbeyet al, 2010 Mangroves provide various ecological goods and services directly for humankind, and indirectly through the supporting roles mangrove forests play in maintaining other productive systems in the seascape. The estimated economic value of mangrove forests to the local communities is in the range of $27,264 - $35,921 per hectare (Sathirathai and Barbiar, 2001). This estimate includes the value of direct use of wood and other resources collected from mangroves as well as additional external benefits in terms of off-shore fishery linkages and coastline protection. The mangrove forests are known to serve various socio-economic and ecological functions, especially in coastal communities. For instance, they provide breeding grounds for fish species and provide numerous non-wood products that contribute to rural livelihoods. Due to man’s need an explosion in the population, mangroves have suffered much pressure in the recent past with enormous losses through man’s activities directly or indirectly in the marine environment, mangrove swamps, and flood plain, which gives rise to The loss, destruction, and degradation of the mangrove forests have been attributed to many factors including urbanization, quarrying, salt, and sand extraction; pollution from industries, agro-industrial chemicals, petroleum and gas exploitation; absence of appropriate legislation; deforestation for fish smoking (Ajonina and Usongo, 2001; Ajoninaet al, 2005). Therefore, this research work is meant to access and determine the distribution of the survival of mangroves from the above-mentioned stressors and to suggest possible mitigation processes that can revive the exploited mangrove forest.

1.2    Significant of the study

The mangrove forests are known to serve various socio-economic and ecological functions, especially in coastal communities. For instance, they provide breeding grounds for fish species and provide numerous non-wood products that contribute to rural livelihoods through improving fishery resources added to the standing stock of the state’s fisheries and economy. This can only be certain if the distribution of mangrove is determined, of which this project work is aimed.

1.3    Scope of work

This project work is limited only to Iko coastal environment.

1.4    Aim and Objectives

1.4.1    Aim

This work is aimed at accessing the distribution of mangroves in the Iko coastal environment.

1.4.2    Objectives

 To determine the physicochemical parameters influencing the environment,

To determine the distribution pattern of mangrove species and their abundance in the Iko coastal environment,

To access the environmental effects of mangrove and the possible potential application of mangrove.






Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.