COMMUNICATION AS A MEANS OF ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL TOBACCO COMPANY, ILORIN)
This work is a part of requirement for the award of higher National diploma (HND) in business administration of Kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin Kwara state. In this project, the research would comment on the importance and significant of communication in an organization especially manufacturing industries. Also, effective communication process would be evaluated to let the readers know the reason why communication has to be managed effectively in an organization.
The searchers would visit international tobacco company Ilorin for more findings on the project, and for collection of necessary on the project, and for collection of necessary data to be used. The problem findings would be analyzed in the project. The view of many authors, the organization itself, manager and the people involved in the process would also be discussed extensively. Based on the summary of findings and conclusion the authors reasonable recommendation of how to improve the skill of communication process in an organization settings and how it can be managed effectively to enhance organizational development would be discussed.
Chapter one of these projects shows that introduction, statement of problems, objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significant of the study, historical background of the study and definition of the terms.
Chapter two shows the literature review, chapter three of the project shows the research methodology, justification of research methodology adopted, and method of data collection chapter four of this project shows the presentation and analysis of data.
Chapter five shows the summary, conclusion recommendation and bibliography.
Finally, the researchers hope the write up would not only attract attention of various organizations in Nigeria, but would also form an important topic of discussion among business education managers and industrialist. Therefore the researchers hope to summarize their finding, drawn conclusion and suggest recommendations, which would be put to valuable uses by the case study organization and other industry alike
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents x-xi
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2Background of the study5
1.3 Statement of the problems 9
1.4 Objective of the study 10
1.5 Significance of the study 10
1.6 Scope of the study 11
1.7 Limitation of the study 12
1.8 Definition of terms 13
1.9 Plans of the study 14
2.0Reviews of related literatures15-43
3.0 Research methodology 44
3.1 Historical background of the case study 47
3.2 Population of the study 49
3.3 Sample size 50
3.4 Sources of data/method of data collection 50
3.5 Methods of data analysis 52
4.0 Data presentation, interpretation analysis 54
4.1 Data presentation 55
4.2 Data interpretation 56
4.3 Data analysis 58
4.4 Research findings 64
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 66
5.1 Summary 66
5.2 Recommendation 68
5.3 Conclusion 70
Communication is vital part of human existence, as long as there is life, human being perpetually seeking to be heard and understood to look around us today, human being are always interacting with one another.
The person wishing to be heard and understood is the sender of the message. He generates meaning by encoding the message in a way he thanks it would be understood. The person who is the target of the message is the receiver. He listens to the messages, decodes, attributes meanings to it and sends feedbacks to the sender depending on the meaning he attributes to the message.
This is why communication has been described as the process of generating and attributing meanings in an organization setting, nothing can be achieved without communication, because organization exists to accomplish goals that a single individual cannot tackle. It is then compulsory for interaction of all sorts to take place on organization.
Communication in organization is the transfer of information between manager and his staff. It is a necessary process in directing the efforts of others towards the achievement of results. If management entails getting things done through people, communication is the essence of it, for without effective communication no one would know what they are supposed to be doing, Nor would there be any basis for answering questions solving problems, obtaining feedback or measuring result.
Communication in management like other sphare of life is very vital. It is said that successful communication is the end to misunderstanding and aided by good morale, which could lead to increase in productivity and co-operation among the managers and their workers.
It is imperatives to state that success or failure of any organization depends on how well effective communication is practiced. Some organisation are not developing due to ineffective communication process practiced.
Negotiations, discussions and conclusions are always taking place at all level of the organization among laborers at the lowers rank of the ladders, between superiors and subordinates, people on the levels and even at management level.
Communication is thus an essential part of organization setting because business operation would come to a half without it.
Organization development can be considered as an approval to the introduction of planned changed concentrating on the process of change, rather than the content. It involves a number of behavioral science techniques which are designed to build a more effective organization.
The concept aims to helps the organization gain an insight into its own process.
The increasing need for change led to development organization development, created by change.
a. Technology and labour skills
b. Attitudes of employee
c. Size of organization
d. Need to improve performance.
In developing the above statements, two of the processing does not require communication management. An “agent of change” is needed to get a catalyst. He may be from inside or outside the organization, without communication this cannot be possible. The aim is to help the company solve its own problems and focus is on organization at group and inter-personal process.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organization development (OD) is a planned, organization wide effort to increase an organization effectiveness and viability, Warren Bennis has referred to organization development as a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, marketing and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself.
Organizational development is neither “anything done to better an organization” nor is it “the training function of the organization”, it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. Organizational development can involved, interventions in the organization’s ’’process’’ using behavioural well as organizational reflection, system improvement, planning and self-analysis.
Kurt lewin (1898-1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of organizational development although he died before the concept became current in mid- 1950s from lewin came the ideas of group dynamics and action research which underpin the basic organizational development process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/ client ethos. Institutionally, Lewin founded the “Research center for group dynamics “(RCGD) at MIT, which moved to Michigan after his death, RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL) from which the T. group and group-based organizational development emerged. In the UK the tavistock institute of human Relations was important in developing system theories. The joint TIHR journal Human relations was an early journal in the field.
The journal of applied behavioural sciences is now the leading journal in the field.
At the core of organization development is the concept of organization, defined as two or more people working together toward one or more shared goal (s). development in this context is the nation that an organization may become more effective over time at achieving its goals. Organizational development is a long range effort to improve organization’s problem solving and renewal processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative management of organization culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst, and the use of the theory and technology of applied for the study and practice of organizational development, new and emerging fields of study have made their presence known. Experts in systems thinking, leadership studies, organizational leadership studies, organizational leadership, and organizational learning ( to name a few) whose perspective is not stepped in just, the behavioural sciences but a much more multi-disciplinary and interdesplinary approach have emerged as organizational development catalysts. The term catalysts is synonymous with the nation of a leader who is emerged in going leadership, a transformative or effectiveness process as opposed to management, a more incremental or efficiency based change methodology.
Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Organizational development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational changed and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology, psychology and theories of motivation, learning and personality. Organizational development is a growing field that is responsive to many new approaches including positive adult development.
The ultimate aim of organizational development practitioners is to “work themselves out of a job” by leaving the client organization with a set of tools, behaviours, attitudes, and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps towards it own renewal and development.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
There has been an increase in the rate of industrial conflict today, low response from customer to organization output, low productivity, management of organization funds, production storage, delayed in raw materials supplies and supply of substandard quality raw material, due to ineffective communication process. The above mentioned problems can lead to total failure of such organization or set back for the organization.
This however, geared the researchers to take up the research work and let the reader know the result of effective communication in organization in organization settings.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this research work is to meet the requirement for the award of higher National Diploma (HND) in Business Administration. Also, since it is known that communication is the bedrock of any organization, the researchers has then take interest to study how communication as a means of enhancing organizational development. More so, it is to determine whether communication processes are effectively practiced as a case study of the project work INTERNATIONAL TOBACCO COMPANY (ITC), Ilorin. This will help a lot to know the value of communication in an organization setting.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Communication has always been and still is an important aspect of daily living. More than ever before, its importance is heightened by the fact that the whole world is more interrelated than in the past, due to the development of organization.
Most only thus, the amount of industrial unrest that is evident today underscores this point, besides the term generation gap signifies failure in communication between various age groups in the society.
Evidence all around us and our personal experience suggest that effective communication is not easy even though very desirable.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
There are lots of communication principles used in most organization settings, but this research work will be restricted to communication variables, methods of communication and types of communication.
The researchers will especially cover manufacturing industry the researcher intended covering several organisation in different part of the country, especially manufacturing industries, but due to some constraints, which will be later.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researchers have been limited to international Tobacco company, Ilorin Kwara state.
The findings from this case study will be used to present the organization of manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
The limitation of this study is not an easy task to undertake a research work in any field of human endeavour. Ours is not an explanation, such problems like finance, secrecy, the size of the establishment and time, have all contributed to the narrowed result.
a. Finance: The researchers did not find it easy going from school to the case study center every time before they could get the title data and because the researchers were running shorts of funds, the visit could not be intensified
b. Size of the establishment: the researchers only covered a branch of international Tobacco company out of many branches and head office. This is due to the fact that the head office is located in lagos cannot keep visiting, due to lack of adequate funds.
c. Time: The time allocated for this research work is too short and coupled with other academic work which the researchers has to face, thereby reducing the researchers work to minimum.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Communication: peter little (1977) defined communication as the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and organizations so that an understanding response results.
2. Organization: It can be define as the vehicle, by which large scale effort are blends efforts together in pursuit of a major objective.
3. Development: Development can defined as the process of giving adequate training to the employee procured in an organization in other to increase productivity and social welfare of employees.
4. Eutos: this simply means the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society.
5. Client: This simply means a person who uses the services or advice of a professional person organization.
6. Under-pin: this can be express as to support or form the basis of an argument.
7. Catalyst: this simple means a person or thing that causes a changes..