Fraud and forgery are gradually becoming daily occurrence in our banking industry., much as it around be admitted that they has always been part of our financial system. It is obvious that they are in lost assumes perplexity  proportion millions of naira are lost through the machination of either account holder or bank official   or account holder in collaboration with bank official. The offences ranges from falsification of entries forgery  of signature of account holder or theft by bank cashier and customer.; 

A most serious dimension has been adds to this practice by the so called taken fraud where by false message in respect of millions of naira are transmuted to form ficitions account oversea, cashed on by oversea collaborator and they by daring Nigeria of foreign exchange and creating an appalling image of our internal control system. 

There fore the objectives of this work is to identify the result of internal control in a basils for prevention and detection of fraud secondary the project study various from of internal control as  well as it effectiveness on ZENITH plc and  Nigerian banking industry as this has been use toward checking  and preventing fraud in our banking industry. The researcher also delve into deterring the legal  loopholes in the Nigeria legal system that facilitate fraud. 

In studying then above problem primary data and secondary  data were used. The primary source includes the use of questionnaire and oral interview while the secondary source include the use of questionnaire and oral interview while secondary source include test books article and other white up in various journals.

The analysis of the secondary and primary data was based on statistical distribute ion table of Francis, percentage, bar chart and histogram. Hypothesis were established and tested in conformity with accept reject criterion. From the funding the finding of the analysis recondition and conclusion were made.


Title page i

Dedication ii

Acknowledgement iii

Table of contents iv

List of table v 

Proposal vi


1. Introduction 

1. Background of the study 

2. Statement of the problem 

3. Purpose of the study 

4. Significance of the study 

5. Research questions 

6. Scope. Limitation of the study 


8. Review of related literal control 

1. Organization of internal control 

2. What is fraud of in banking industry 

3. Sources form and causes of fraud in our banks 

4. The effect and danger of fraud in our banks 

5. The law relating to and the legal process of protecting fraud in bank 

6. Common fraudulent practices 

7. Technique of internal control 

8. The plan of a typical bank 

9. Authorization recording and custody procedures 

10. Managerial supervision and review 

11. Audit quality control measure 

12. The main objectives of audit quality country summary of related review. Literature 


21. Research methodology 

1. Research design 

2. Area of study 

3. Population for the study 

4. Sample and sampling procedure 

5. Instrument for data collection 

6. Reliability of reason instrument 

7. Validation of research instrument 

8. Method administration of research instrument 

9. Method of analysis 


4.0 data presentation and results 

1. Summary of result (Finding) 


5. Discussion conclusion and recommendation

1. Discussion of result 

2. Conclusion 

3. Recommendations 

4. Reference 

5. Questionnaire 


Even since the inception of the first three successful indigenous banks in Nigeria, the National Bank of Nigeria established on February 11th 1933, the Agbommagbe Bank (now wema Bank Nig Plc) in 1945, The ZENITHcan continental Bank Plc in 1947 and others subsequently established in the country  during the period from  1952 when the first banking ordinance was enacted to regulate  and control the activities of commercial banks in the country till present day, prand have remarried a permanent feature in our banking industry.

During the free banking era (between 1892 and 1952) there was no form of banking act or ordinance to regulate the stabilities shipment and operation of commercial bank. There are as it is presently supervised. Many bank were registered. Some of did not open their doors for  business ever for a day while some simply collected customers deposits and varnished. This had resulted to the deprivation of our economy an as a whole the much needs fund for development and  depriving individual the hard earned funds, this also brought about loss of faith trust on the commercial banks by Nigeria and the subsequent under developed banking habit in the country

However, with the introduction of the first banking ordinance in 1952 and the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) ordinance in 1958 to regulate and control the activities of commercial banking in the country fraud in commercial banks have rather increased in size, and method used by fraudster acquires greater  sophistication day by day. Presently with the introduction or modern banking procedures ie improved communication system, automatic electronic gadgets and computers networks into our banking system coupled with various precautionary measures taken by banks. To prevent fraud in the banks fraud have rather taken unclear dimension and the six and form involved increase in a geometric progression. Other Amptiam in his articles obstacle o growth of baking industry saw that it was discovered during investigation that bank now take extra precaution before clearing a cheque because of rampant incident of fraud and forgeries the form of fraud has placed banks loss on the average of # 1m per each working day of the year in Nigeria Asimi kola in his own article “The cash economy phenomenon” also observed that fraud has become sophisticated as to make forget cheque book good the owner to confirm it as his own signature recently in the bid curb the grand fraud, CBN issued a directive to bank to increase it capital base to # 25 billion. Previously section a of the decree 1990 state that, the minimum paid up capital for bank is #50 million for commercial bank. This directive come up after several bank has been discovered to have defrauded it is customers mostly foreign investors. In this required . project topics   final year project topics and research materials 

Bankers in a bid to reduce the size and rapid occurrence of fraud in their bank now take adequate precautionary measure before clearing cheques drawn their customers accounts. These precautionary measures bring into  focus another problem facing commercial banks,. The problem of time wastage in the banking hall. Ashimi Kola in his article also said that customer waits a minimum of about two hours in banking hall  of Nigeria banks to cash their money. This is one of the  most legitimate criticisms of the quality of  bank services. The checking process is long and by the time a cheque is released to cashier for payment, the customer is frustrated and perhaps Rast asleep among feering crowd. This calls for an overhaul of the checking and control system. E above being the general situation of things in commercial banking fraud is there fore number one enemy to all concerned with growth and development of banks., the intention of this research work therefore aimed at identification of the fraud on Nigerian economy in general and on ZENITH Nigeria plc Enugu in particular  and recommend more functional measure that will help in the prevention and to reduction of fraud in commercial bank in Nigeria.


The focus of this study is to provide evidence bearing on the nature and factors leading to ineffective management in bank, also it actually evaluates the uneremental effect of FRUAD and finally shows INTERNAL CONTROL as a basis to prevention and detection of fraud.


Owing to perculias nature of banks in trading on financial asset and liabilities, there is high  propensity towards fraudulent manipulation by both employees and those outside the bank to install internal control system that will help to eliminate stop and arrest fraudulent tendencies and ensure effectiveness in performance of its functions. It is the  function of the internal control

 Unlit to assist management in achieving effective. The  consequences of lack of adequate internal control system in direct and financial term can not be over whelmed. Thus banking subsector has  been  witnessing as phenomenal increase in reported bank fraud ruing in hundreds of million of naira annually. These occur in form of computers frauds, deflation misrepresentation of document outright disappearance with physical cash by  employees and outsiders and the re occurring problem of banks branch mangers granting credie over their discretionary as approval by the  top management without adequate security hence resulting to losses and increased bad debt


Most banks operate business in such inefficient way that their target and budget becomes always unrealistic thus leading to negative result and poor performance. The end result is that  while efficiently managed banks are seeking approved to open new branched the mismanaged ones are busy clamoring to be  allowed to close unlivable branches one even close their door entirely. The problem of lack of economy and efficiently in  operator  is more serious than fraud as it is mammals of procedures. Recording of some transaction of bank by employees are not done in conformity with established standard hence resulting to back of unbalanced book and records.


Increasing bad debt portfolio of banks inherent from high credit default by ,loan users has been giving bankers sleepless night as a substantial part of their income is row used as a provision against these debt in view of the requirement of prude ntital guidelines for licensed bank issued by the central bank  of Nigeria in off Nigeria in 1990, in 1991, financial  year, most of the existing bank will hinge  portfolio after report losses or very minimal profile position ,after making the necessary  provision are required by the guidelines.

It is because the continuous concerns of government and other regulatory bodies about the problem of banks and the serious need for effectiveness by their management that various registrations and directive were made in the recent time Recathly the CBN issued directive to bank for recapitalisation up to N25 billion, in January 1991 CBN issued circulated to all bank directors an information book lets (pocked Guide for bank Directors) Equally in 1991, the Bank and other financial institution decree was promulgated by government.

1.3            PURPOSE OF STUDY

The principal purpose of lilies study is to identify and explain how internal control Adit could be used to check fraud and detect fraud. Using ZENITH bank plc and a case study  

However, in more specific term, lies study scale to 

Identify to what extent adequate internal control is ZENITH Plc Fund out the extent of ineffective way of banking operation. Determine the overall loan losses and increasing bad debt portfolio


The usefulness of this study entitled effective internal control as a basis for prevention detection of fraud can not be over whole the researcher was motive into embarking on this study because of the positives result accruable from an adequate internally control organization. Equally the result of this study would be immense benefit to numerous group of persons such as Auditors, External Examiners, Managers, the Accounting and Banking professions, Regulatory bodies of banks and other operators in the banking system. When the society is corrupt, wealth an groritied irrespective of its sources. The desire to join the political and the ruling class may compel most bankers to throw professional ethic to the winds for praudul practices. This therefore makes study very important.

Acknowledgement of the possible causes of disease will assist a medical doctor to give4 adequate prescription for the prevention and cure of disease similarly, it will be pertinent to analyze and recommend directive, preventive and curative measure to check fraud and distress in banks. Indeed internal  control machinery when installed can do this ,Also recruitment not based on sentiments but on personal integrity will prevent recruitment of weptomanaic, greedy  and ungodly people in bank

It is believes that for effective management, management by example should be the watch word of every banker, be he a director, manager officer, supervisor clerk, or messenger. Everyone should be made to comply with the lay down policed and procedure in performance of any banking function. He who says people should not steal should not steal too

1.5            RESEARCH QUESTION

This study  is on appraised of internal control as a basis for fraud prevention and detection. It intend to cerate relevant theoretical concepts and relates them  Adri bank plc in Enugu in a way that it would be helpful to those concerned with the management.

In a nutshell this theses is based on the following question

To what extent are banking operation effective in ZENITH bank? How adequate is the attitude and perception of banking transaction What extent are FRAID AND IRRECULARIDES occures in ZENITH bank


1.6            The scope of this study is designed to cover management function of internal control will particular reference to ZENITH bank plc. This research work met a lot  of difficulties First the bank visited was reluctant to gives out relevant statistical data on financial frauds occurring in their banks. None of these banks denied of ever being a victim of fraud this is non compliance





Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.