FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: A PANACEA ON THE CORPORATE PERFORMANCE OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS: A case study of Nigerian Breweries plc.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The impact of financial reporting on the corporate performance of a business organization is becoming more apparent to user groups of financial statement.
Accounting is a not an exact science neither are business operations without some subjective and judgmental errors when it comes to reporting them. A financial report therefore is statement which informs the various interest groups of a business on the operations and performance of their business in a period under review, its present state of affairs as well as its anticipated future, in accordance with the statutes. If a financial report is to serve its purpose it ought to be characterized by the following.
If accounting process of an organization is to provide the information required to prepare a financial report which shall have the above characteristics then the transaction during the period must be recorded promptly and accurately and interpreted in conformity with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS), International Financial Reporting Standards and the companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA)
Financial Accounting becomes necessary with the obvious need for managers to render accounts of stewardship to owners of the business. Financial reporting is a duty of stewardship assigned to the directors of a company by section 334 of the company and Allied Matters Act Cap L20 LFN, equally the mandatory responsibility of companies to keep accounting records derives its strength from section 331 and 382 of the same act. These sections explicitly defined the necessary content and manner in which financial records should be kept.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study “financial accounting; a panacea on the corporate performance of business organisation” aims at investigating the financial reports of selected companies with a view to determining the following;
a. The extent to which a standard financial report contributes to the growth of a business organization.
b. The extent to which the financial reports of corporate business organization comply with statutory provisions.
Therefore, based on the above statements, the researcher shall investigate the financial reporting standards and every regulation that bears on the financial statement and the extent of compliance of the selected companies to relevant statutes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The master or general objectives of this study is to critically examine the financial reports of the selected companies and to probe into the fundamentals for their preparation as well as its presentation. The specific objectives of the study however are:
a. To determine the extent to which a standard financial report contributes to growth of a business organization.
b. To determine the extent to which the financial reports of corporate business organization comply with statutory provisions.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to determine the impact of financial reporting on the corporate performance ofbusiness organizations, it is pertinent to ask the following questions;
a. To what extent does a standard financial report contributes to the growth of a business organization?
b. To what extent does a financial report of corporate business organization comply with statutory provisions?
The following null and alternative hypothesis has been tested in this research work:
H01: There is no significant relationship between standard financial reports and business growth.
H11: There is a significant relationship between standard financial reports and business growth
H02: financial report of corporate business organizations does not comply with statutory provisions.
H11: financial reports of corporate business organizations comply with statutory provisions.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is very important and most significant at this period when companies with impressive income statement and statement of financial position are still faced with continuity issues. Financial report is“prima facie” evidence on the state of affairs of companies as well as its performance and could be relied upon as a certificate because it has the auditors’ certification.
This study offers solutions to the above questions raised, it is the believe of the researcher that the result of these finding will go a long way to helping other researchers in this area of study, it will also enhance the understanding of the structure of published reports and accounts by the users.
The various user groups of published financial statements will benefit from this study as follows:
1. The Potential Investors:These are groups who are interested in committing their financial resources to the purchase of a company’s shares. The result of this study will arm them with the necessary tools with which to evaluate the financial report of a corporate organization as it affects them.
2. The General Public:This group shall benefit from this report by the knowledge that the business organization exists for them and not against them and as such has to live up to its full responsibilities. project topics final year project topics and research materials
3.The Regulators of Financial Accounting Report:This group includes the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN), The companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA), Banking and Other Financial Institutions Act of 1991 (BOFIA), prudential guidelines for licensed Banks, the Insurance Act 2003. The study will help them to standardize and harmonize their operations.
4.The Employee Group: existing, Potential and past employees.
5.The Government Including Tax Authorities, Department who have Interest in the Financial Reports of Companies: The result of this work shall be of immense assistance to each to these user groups in the advancement of their interest.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study could have covered the impact of financial reporting on corporate performance of all the sectors of the Nigerian economy but due to the challenges of such a task especially the financial resources with which to execute it, it is limited to braving industry. The study used selected company in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
The limitations encountered by the researcher of this work are given as follows:
a. The confidential nature of financial accounting information in the business organization posed a problem to this study.
b. The researcher was unable to reach all the members of the sample as a result of their frequent travels and busy schedule.
c. The sample used in the research though representative but is relatively small compared to the population, as a result of lack of finance with which to carry out the research on a greater sample.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
AUDITOR: a person who is qualified to examine the accounts of an organization to see that they are in order.
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION: formerly called balance sheet. a statement that shows the state of affairs of a company by depicting its assets, liabilities as well as its equity.
Bank: a financial institution whose responsibilities among others is to keep deposits for its clients and customers.
Government: an institution of the state whose responsibility is to maintain law and order in the society.
Prima facie: sufficient to establish something legally until disproved later.
Researcher: an enquirerbasically concerned with search knowledge.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
The financial accounting system is one that is well designed to facilitate the smooth, efficient and uninterrupted flow of data from the point where a transaction occurs through the various stages of data processing to the final stage, thereby culminating in a report.
A financial accounting system is made up of three distinct stages which are:
a. Data recording.
b. Information summarization and interpretation.
c. Information reporting
2.2 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING RECORDS
The starting point for the financial accounting is the recording and analysis of transactions. A definite step is followed in the traditional accounting approach, the steps in the processing and generating of output of the accounting system are:
i. Identification and analysis of relevant transitions in the journal.
ii. Making entries of the transactions in the journal.
iii. Posting from the journal to the ledger.
iv. Preparation of trial balance.
v. Determining and recording of the adjusted entries in the general the ledger.
vi. Preparation of the adjusted trial balance.
vii. Preparation of the final accounts and statement which are the statement of comprehensive income and statement of financial position.
It must be noted that in the emerging business environment where e-commerce is the procedure of doing business, the majority of business are conducted electronically. Whereby transactions happen paperless, it is worthy of note that the steps may not be followed sequentially but in essence. The very need for all the step is satisfied in the electronic system but because accounting focuses on the transactions and the financial information content rather than the steps taken to actualize or document it, accountants have adapted themselves to the current e-commerce business environment..