DETERMINATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT, NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF Garcinia kola AND Chrysophyllum albidum FROM RAINFOREST ECOSYSTEM OF ONDO STATE


DETERMINATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT, NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF Garcinia kola AND Chrysophyllum Albidum FROM RAINFOREST ECOSYSTEM OF ONDO STATE.

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the anti-oxidant, nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Garcinia kola and Chrysophyllum albidum from rainforest ecosystem of Ondo state, Nigeria. The anti-oxidant analysis was performed for seed kernel, fruit pulp, fruit skin and the whole fruit of Chrysophyllum albidum while nutritional and anti-nutritional composition for the species were performed for the fruit pulp and seed kernel. For Garcinia kola nutritional, anti-nutritional and anti-oxidant composition was performed on the seed kernel, fruit pulp and the fruit pod. Total phenol, total flavonoid, Vitamin C and 1-1, diphenyl picaryl hydrazine (DPPH) were the anti-oxidants determined for C. albidum and Garcinia kola. Analyses for nutritional (moisture content, ash, protein content, crude fibre, fat, carbohydrate) and anti-nutritional (phytate, oxalate tannin, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid) composition were conducted. The results showed that moisture and ash content of the fruit pulp and seed kernel of C. albidum were comparable; protein, fat and fibre contents were higher in the fruit pulp than in the seed kernel while carbohydrate content of the seed kernel was higher than that in the fruit pulp. For G. kola, the fruit pod had higher ash content than the fruit pulp and seed kernel, the fruit pulp had the highest moisture content, followed by fruit pod and lastly by the seed kernel. The protein and fat contents of the seed kernel and fruit pod were similar but higher than that of the fruit pulp. Carbohydrate content was higher in seed kernel than in the fruit pulp and fruit pod. The results of anti-nutritional analyses indicated that the seed kernel and fruit pulp of G. kola and C. albidum did not have high concentration of anti-nutrients. The fruits of the two species were found to contain good amount of anti-oxidants. Thus, the consumption of the two species is not detrimental health and they can be used as food supplements in food manufacturing.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  TITLE                                                                                                                               PAGE

  TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………...i                                                                                                                              

          ABSTRACT……………………………………………………........... …………………….ii

            CERTIFICATION……………………………………………………...................................iii

            DEDICATION……………………………………………………….....................................iv

            ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………………………..v

  TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………vi

  LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………..  ………………….....xi

  LIST OF PLATES…………………………………………………………………………..xii

  LIST OF TABLES….... ……………………………………………………………………xiii

  CHAPTER ONE

  1.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….....................................1

    1.1GENERAL BACKGROUND……………………………………....................................1

  1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM…………………………………………………….2

  1.3 OBJECTIVES……………………………………………………....................................3

  1.4 JUSTIFICATION………………………………………………………………………..3

  1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………4

  CHAPTER TWO

  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………….6

  2.1 Chrysophyllum albidum…………………………………………………………………6

  2.2 Uses of Chrysophyllum albidum…………………………………………………...........8

   vii   2.3 Garcinia kola…………………………………………………........................................9

  2.3.1 Health benefit of Garcinia kola……………………………………………………....10

  2.4 Irvingia gabonensi……………………………………………………………………...11

  2.4.1 Benefit of Irvingia gabonensis……………………………………………………….12

  2.5 Treculia Africana…………………………………………………………………….....12

  2.5.1 Uses of Treculia Africana…………………………………………………………….13

  2.5.2 Health benefit of Treculia Africana…………………………………………………..14

  2.6     NUTRITION…………………………………………………....................................14

  2.6.1   The nutrient……………………………………………………………………….....15

  2.4.2   Essential and non-essential nutrients…………………………..................................15

  2.6.3   Deficiencies and toxicity……………………………………………………………16

  2.7      ANTI-NUTRIENTS…………………………………………………………….......18

  2.7.1   Phytic and Phytate………………………………………………………………......18

  2.7.2   Tannins……………………………………………………………………………....18

  2.8      ANTI-OXIDANT……………………………………………………………………19

  2.8.1   Total flavonoid………………………………………………………………………22

  2.8.2   Vitamin C……………………………………………………………………………23

  2.8.3   Benefit of anti-oxidant………………………………………………………………23

  2.8.4   Anti-oxidant in the human body………………………………………………….....25

  2.8.5   Dietary sources of anti-oxidant…………………………………………………......25

  2.8.6   Anti-oxidant in the industry……………………………………...............................27

  2.8.7   Anti-oxidant activities………………………………………………………………27

   viii   2.8.8  Comparison  between  the  activities  of  synthetic  and  natural  anti-oxidant  in

            foods………………………………………………………………………………………..28

  CHAPTER THRE

  3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD……………………………………...............................30

  3.1 Materials……………………………………………………………...............................30

  3.2 Methods……………………………………………………………………………........31

  3.2.1 Fruit collection and processing………………………………………………………..31

  3.3 NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR Chrysophyllum albidum and Garcinia

            kola…………………………………………………………………………………………..32

  3.3.1 Moisture Content Determination…………………………………................................33

  3.3.2 Crude Protein Determination……………………………………………………..........34

  3.3.3 Crude Fibre Determination…………………………………………………………….34

  3.3.4 Ash Content Determination………………………………………................................35

  3.3.5 Fat Content Determination………………………………………………………… .36

  3.3.6 Carbohydrate Content Determination………………………………………………. .37

  3.4 ANTI-NUTRIENT DETERMINATION………………………………………………. .37

  3.4.1 Determination of Phytate…………………………………………........................ .37

  3.4.2 Determination of Saponin…………………………………………........................ .37

  3.4.3 Determination of Tannin…………………………………………………………… .38

  3.4.4 Determination of Oxalate………………………………………………………....... .39

  3.4.5 Determination of Flavonoid…………………………………………………….......... .39

  3.4.6 Determination of Alkaloid…………………………………………............................ .40

  3.5 ANTI-OXIDANT DETERMINATION………………………………………………....40

   ix   3.5.1 Determination of Total Phenol………………………………………………………...40

  3.5.2 Determination of Total Flavonoid…………………………………..............................41

  3.5.3 Determination of Vitamin C…………………………………………………………...41

  3.5.4 Determination of DPPH…………………………………………….............................42

  CHAPTER FOUR

  4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………………………................................43

  4.1 Results…………………………………………………………………………………....43

  4.1.1  Result  for  the  Nutritional,  Anti-nutritional, and  Anti-oxidant  composition  of

  Chrysophyllum albidum……………………………………………………………………...43

  4.1.2  Result  for  the  Nutritional,  Anti-nutritional, and  Anti-oxidant  composition  of Garcinia

            kola…………………………………………………………………………………………...47

  4.2 Discussion………………………………………………………………………..............51

  4.2.1 Nutritional composition of Chrysophyllum albidum…………………………..............51

  4.2.1.1 Anti-nutritional composition of C. albidum…………………………………………52

    4.2.1.2.Anti-oxidant analysis of C. albidum…………………………………………………52

  4.2.2 Nutrition composition   of Garcinia kola…...................................................................53

  4.2.2.1 Anti-nutritional composition of G. kola......................................................................53

  4.2.2.2 Anti-oxidant analysis of G. kola………………………………………….…………54

  CHAPTER FIVE

  5.0   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION………………………………………..55

  5.1   CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………...55

  5.2   RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………………..56

            REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………..57

                                      CHAPTER ONE

  1.0:  INTRODUCTION

  1.1: General background

  Non-Timber  Forest  Products  (NTFPs)  play  important  role  in  rural  communities  around  the

  world.  These  products  may  be  sold,  thus  providing  cash  income  and  economic

    empowerment. The extraction of NTFPs is often considered to be a mean of improving rural

  people‟s  living standards as well as the suitable approaches to forest conservation.  They  have

  medicinal values and are very numerous in the forest.  These  NTFPs  are  highly  valued  by

  rural people and form part of their daily diets.  They  are  used  not  only  for  household

  consumption,  but also for trade.  They  could  be  essentials  sources  of  proteins,  vitamins,

  minerals and amino acids, thus making them nutritionally important.  

  Examples of NTFPs tree species include:  Chrysophyllum  albidum,  Treculia Africana, Cola

  nitida, Garcinia kola, Blighia sapida, Elaeis guinensis, Ricinodendron heudelotii and Irvingia

  gabonensis,  etc. Chrysophyllum  albidum or  white  star  apple provides  NTFPs  of  immense

  domestic  importance  to  rural  and  urban  dwellers,  with  great  export  potentials  (Nwoboshi,

  2000). The fruit pulp is widely consumed and thus plays an important role in food security. It

  serves as  a  delicacy and  an  alternative  source  of  food,  it  also  provides an alternative  source  of

  income to rural dwellers and provides rural employment through the collection and sale of the

  fruits. The species has been noted to  be of great nutritional, social, medicinal, and traditional

  importance (Okigbo, 1978; Okafor, 1979). Due to the sweet and pleasant taste of the fruit, the

  consumption  of  C.  albidum  has  been  noted  to  be  on  the  increase  (Egharevba  and  Uwadiae,

  1995). Also, the demand for the fruit has increased in Nigerian cities.

   1   1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

  The fruit and seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum and Garcinia kola respectively are essential

  sources of protein, minerals,  vitamins, and amino acids,  etc. They also  have a very  high

  percentage of their fresh weight as water and they exhibit relatively high metabolic activity

  when compared with other plants consumed by man.  

  Despite their importance, Chrysophyllum  albidum and Garcinia  kola have been  greatly

  neglected, especially with respect to their regeneration. It has been shown that the economic

  importance, as  well  as  the  consumption  of  these  forest  fruit  species, has increased  in  recent

  years  as  a  result  of  increased  awareness  of  its social,  economic,  medicinal, and  nutritional

  values.  Although C.  albidum and G.  kola have  been  consumed  for  decades  or  centuries in

  Nigeria  and  other  parts  of  Africa,  their  anti-oxidants,  nutritional  and  anti-nutritional

  compositions have not been investigated in detail. (Egharevba and Uwadiae, 1995; Leakey

  et al., 1996; Onyekwelu and Akindele, 2002).  

   The determination of the nutritional composition of the fruit is essential in order to ascertain the

  important roles these fruits will play in human nutrition while the anti-oxidant determination

  is essential to ascertain its medicinal value. One of the major constraints to the utilization of

  fruits and seeds from forest trees are the presence of Anti-nutritive Factors (ANFS) especially

  phytate and trypsin inhibitors (Edet et al., 1985). Consequently, it is essential to investigate

  the presence of these nutrients, anti-nutrients, and anti-oxidants as well as their quantities in

  the fruits, which is the focus of this study. This will help in evaluating the contribution of the

  fruit to the nutritional balance of the people as well as to health care delivery.  

   2   1.3 OBJECTIVES  

  The  general  objective  of  the  study  is  to  investigate  the anti-oxidant, nutritional, and anti-

  nutritional composition of the fruits and seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum and Garcinia kola

  grown in the rainforest ecosystem of Ondo State, Nigeria.

  The specific objective includes:

    1. To  investigate  the  nutritional  composition  of  the  fruit and  seeds of Chrysophyllum

          albidum and Garcinia kola, respectively

    2. To examine the anti-nutritional composition of the fruit of Chrysophyllum albidum as

        well as in the seeds of Garcinia kola

    3. To carry out  analysis of anti-oxidant of Chrysophyllum albidum fruits and Garcinia

        kola seeds are grown in the rainforest ecosystem of Ondo State, Nigeria.

  1.4 JUSTIFICATION

  Forest  fruits and seeds are increasingly becoming important  in  the nutritional diversity and

  health care delivery of the people, especially rural dwellers. They contribute to our diets, thus

  their importance cannot be overemphasized.  In  Nigeria, C. albidum and G.  kola are

  consumed in different ecological zones and by different people groups.  It  is  necessary  to

  embark on  the  domestication  of these  species because  of their economic,  social, traditional,

  environmental,  medicinal, and  nutritional  importance,  as  well  as their increasing  demand,

  coupled with the decreasing yield and old age of current trees. Some fruits contain quantities

  of  anti-nutrient,  which  are  detrimental  to  human  health  while  others  are  known  to  contain

  a large number of nutrients necessary for bodybuilding and functioning such as fibre, protein,

  carbohydrates,  etc.  Also,  some  fruits  contain  a  good  quantity  of  antioxidants,  which  help

   3   maintaining the health of the human body.  With these, the determination of the nutritional,

    anti-nutritional  and  anti-oxidant  elements  in  indigenous  forest  fruits and  seeds should  be

  done in order to sensitize the economy. Where they are found to contain high quantities of anti-nutrients that are detrimental to human health, the measure would be taken to overcome them so

  that the fruits can be consumed without damage to human health. Where the  fruits and

  seeds contain a good  quantity  of  nutritional  elements and  anti-oxidants,  their  cultivation  and

  consumption should be promoted (Adekunle, 2007; Ajewole and Adeyeye, 1991). Thus, this

  the study is aimed at investigating the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and anti-oxidant compositions

  in the fruits and seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum and Garcinia kola, respectively grown in

  the rainforest ecosystem of Ondo State, Nigeria.

  1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

  This  study  covers the  determination  of the  nutritional,  anti-nutritional  and  anti-oxidant

  analysis  of Chrysophyllum  albidum fruits and Garcinia  kola seeds from the rainforest

    ecological zone of  Ondo  State.  Fresh fruits of  the  species  were collected  from  trees in

    agroforestry  farms  in  some villages  within  the rainforest ecological zone of  Ondo  State,

    Nigeria. The nutritional compositions investigated were: Moisture content, crude fibre, ash,

  crude  protein, fats, and  carbohydrates, the  anti-nutrients determined  are  tannin,  phytate,

  phytin phosphorus, oxalate, saponin,  alkaloid, and flavonoid composition.  While the anti-

  oxidants  determined are  the total  phenol,  total flavonoid, 1-1,  diphenyl  picaryl  hydrazine

  (DPPH free  radical  scavenging) and vitamin  C.  The  nutritional  and  anti-nutritional

    compositions  determination  was carried  out  in  Animal  Production  and  Health  Department

   4     experimental Laboratory, FUTA while the anti-oxidant investigation was carried out in the

    Department of Biochemistry Postgraduate laboratory, FUTA.   

.

DETERMINATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT, NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF Garcinia kola AND Chrysophyllum albidum FROM RAINFOREST ECOSYSTEM OF ONDO STATE



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