CHARACTERIZATION OF PYROLYTIC BIOFUEL PREPARED FROM BIOMASS OF Ceiba pentandra and Melicia excelsa


CHARACTERIZATION OF PYROLYTIC BIOFUEL PREPARED FROM BIOMASS OF Ceiba pentandra and Melicia Excelsa

ABSTRACT

Wood wastes residues collected at a sawmill along Benin Ilesha expressway in Akure Ondo State (Ceiba pentandra, Melicia excelsa and mixture of Ceiba pentandra, and Melicia excelsa) ratio 50:50 were converted to liquid bio-fuel via slow pyrolysis process at three different temperatures, 450° C, 550° C and 650° C. The physical characteristics of the liquid bio-fuel viz; oil yield, volume, density, viscosity, pH were determined. The proximate values of the feedstocks (volatile matter, ash content, and fixed carbon) were determined. The pyrolytic oil yield for Ceiba pentandra, Melicia excelsa, and a mixture of Ceiba pentandra, Melicia excelsa ranged from 17.67 % to 46.72 %, 16.33 % to 43.73 % and 16.72 % to 43.96 % respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in temperature indicates an increase in oil yield and a decrease in percentage char. The mean value for the charcoal produced ranged from 32.01 % to 47.17 % with Ceiba pentandra species having the highest charcoal produced at 450° C. The highest viscosity (87.08±2.88) was recorded for Melicia excelsa at 650° C. The heating value of the feedstocks used in this study ranged from 3305.59±67 to 33173±34.36 KJ/kg which indicates high heating value as good combustion properties that can guarantee safe handling of the Pyrolytic liquid produced from the feedstocks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITTLES                                                                                                                                                                  PAGES

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................. iv

CERTIFICATION ......................................................................................................................... vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................. vii

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ xii

LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................... xiii

LIST OF PLATES ....................................................................................................................... xiv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Statement of problem ................................................................................................................ 2

1.2. Objectives ................................................................................................................................ 3

1.3. Scope of the Study ................................................................................................................... 3

1.4. Justification .............................................................................................................................. 4

                                            vii

 CHAPTER TWO

2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Biofuel as an alternative source of energy ..................................................................................... 5

2.1.1 Generation of Biofuel ................................................................................................... 6

  2.1.1.1. First generation of biofuels ........................................................................................ 6

  2.1.1.2 Second-generation biofuels ....................................................................................... 6

  2.1.1.3 Third generation biofuels .......................................................................................... 7

  2.1.1.4 Fourth generation biofuels ........................................................................................... 7

2.1.2 Types of biofuel ................................................................................................................. 8

  2.1.2.1 Ethanol......................................................................................................................... 8

  2.1.2.2 Biobutanol ................................................................................................................... 8

  2.1.2.3 Biodiesel ...................................................................................................................... 9

2.2 Sustainable production of biofuel ............................................................................................. 9

2.2.1 Plants used as sustainable biofuel .................................................................................... 10

  2.2.1.1 Sugarcane .................................................................................................................. 10

  2.2.1.2 Jatropha ..................................................................................................................... 10

  2.2.1.3 Pongamia Pinnata ...................................................................................................... 10

                                            viii

 2.2.2 Wood as a source of energy ............................................................................................. 11

2.3 Pyrolysis .................................................................................................................................. 11

2.3.1. Pyrolysis processes for biomass.......................................................................................... 12

2.3.2 Principles of fast pyrolysis ............................................................................................... 13

2.3.3. Feedstock preparation for pyrolysis ................................................................................ 13

2.3.4 Pyrolysis process technologies ......................................................................................... 14

  2.3.4.1 Fixed Bed Reactor ..................................................................................................... 14

  2.3.4.2 Ablative Processes ..................................................................................................... 14

  3.3.4.3 Fluidized gas .............................................................................................................. 15

  2.3.4.4 Circulating Fluidized Beds ........................................................................................ 15

2.4 Characteristic of pyrolysis liquid-bio-Oil ............................................................................... 16

2.5 Applications of bio-oil ............................................................................................................ 16

2.6 Products and their characteristics............................................................................................ 16

2.7 Biomass pyrolysis production related to biomass composition .............................................. 17

2.8 Meaning of terms .................................................................................................................... 18

2.8.1 Viscosity ........................................................................................................................... 18

2.8.2 pH value ........................................................................................................................... 18

                                            ix

 2.8.3 Flashpoint ........................................................................................................................ 18

2.8.4 Ash content ....................................................................................................................... 19

2.8.5 Heating value.................................................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 20

3.1 Sample collection .................................................................................................................... 20

3.2. Experimental set-up ............................................................................................................... 20

3.3. Sample preparation ................................................................................................................ 20

3.4 Physical properties determination ........................................................................................... 21

3.4.1 Viscosity determination.................................................................................................... 21

3.4.2 pH determination .............................................................................................................. 21

3.4.3 Density determination ...................................................................................................... 22

3.5 Proximate analysis .................................................................................................................. 22

3.5.1 Percentage volatile matter ................................................................................................ 22

3.5.2 Percentage ash content ..................................................................................................... 23

3.5.3 Percentage fixed carbon ................................................................................................... 23

3.5.4 Flashpoint test ................................................................................................................. 24

                                            x

 3.6 Statistical analysis: analysis of variance for physical properties of pyrolytic oil ................... 24

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................................... 29

4.1 Physical properties of pyrolytic oil ......................................................................................... 29

4.1.1. Percentage pyrolytic oil yield (%) ................................................................................... 29

4.1.2 Charcoal produced............................................................................................................ 30

4.1.3. Volume of pyrolytic oil yield .......................................................................................... 34

4.1.5. the pH of  pyrolytic oil .......................................................................................................... 37

4.1.6. Viscosity of Pyrolytic oil ................................................................................................ 39

4.2. Flashpoint of pyrolytic oil produced ................................................................................. 41

4.3. Proximate analysis and heating values of the three selected sawmill wood residues ........ 43

4.4. % oil yield, charcoal produced, and Noncombustible gas with variation in temperature. .... 48

CHAPTER FIVE .......................................................................................................................... 49

5.0 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 49

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 50

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Energy  is  generated  from  various  sources  which  include  renewable  sources  that  could  be

replenished in a short period of time, such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and hydropower.

Energy  could  also  be  from  nuclear  source  through  fission  and  fusion  of  nuclear  materials.

Furthermore, energy could also be produced from non renewable sources (fossil fuel) like coal,

oil and natural gas. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster

than nature can recreate them because it takes millions of years to form naturally and cannot be

replaced as fast  as they  are being  consumed. Those sources of energy  cannot  be recreated in  a

short  period  of time  when  used  up.  However,  we  get  most  of  our  energy  from  non  renewable

energy sources (fossil fuel). Fossil fuel is a non renewable resource that cannot be produced, re-

grown, regenerated, or reuse on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate.

 In spite of the limited supply from this source of energy, the rate at which it is being exhausted

increases  on  a  daily  basis,  therefore  leading  to  a  rapid  depletion  of  fossil  fuel.  A  shortage  of

energy is therefore envisaged which may become constrain to human development and economic

growth. This has stimulated the quest for alternative source of energy from renewable resources

to  produce  electricity,  drive  automobile  and  farm  machines.  Bio  fuels  have  been  identified  as

important source of renewable energy that can complement the use of fossil fuels.

Biomass fuel is a term used for a wide variety of fuels originating from dry matter of biological

products. In the broadest sense the term is used to indicate fuels from chicken litter, bone meal,

grasses  and  wood.    In  co-firing  applications  the  use  of  biomass  is  mostly  limited  to  woody

biomass.  The  focus  of  this  study is  therefore  limited  to  woody  biomass  and  in  the  rest  of  this

                                            1

 study the  term  biomass  is  referring  only  to wood. Biomass  is  material  derived  from  recently

living  organisms.  This  include  plants,  animals  and  their  by  products.  For  example,  manure,

garden waste and crop residues are all sources of biomass. It is a renewable energy source based

on the carbon cycle, unlike other natural resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuel.   

Biofuels are  produced  from  biological carbon source; the  most  common  sources  are

photosynthetic  plants.  Biofuels  are  renewable  and  environment friendly  when  compare  with

fossil fuel  that increases environmental pollution. Various plants  materials are used  for biofuel

manufacturing.  They  are  also  used  as  solid  biofuel  for  heating  and  cooking.  One  of  the

technologies used for the production of biofuel is the pyrolysis of biomass.  

Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of wood in complete absence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis of

biomass is one of the most promising technologies in the last two decades for producing biofuel

(Manyele  2007)  Fast  pyrolysis  is  a  biomass  conversion  system  that  offers  high  yield  of  liquid

product that can be used directly or upgraded. Virtually any form of biomass can be considered

for  fast  pyrolysis,  ranging  from  Agricultural  waste  such  as  straw,  olive  pits  and  nutshell  of

energy crops as well as forest operations residues such as bark, thinning and other solid wastes.

This research work would emphasis the pyrolysis of sawmill wood residues. The characteristics

of  the  liquid  would  therefore  be  carefully  defined  and  investigated  in  term  of  chemical

characterization

1.1 Statement of problem

Fossil fuel supplies are finite and exhaustible, they are fast depleting as they are being exploited

from  their  sources  and  are  going  into  extinction  (Zerbe  1985)  Fossil  fuel  production  and

utilization  threaten  the  environment  and  human health  in  myriad  ways  from  the  destruction  of

                                            2

 fishing grounds by oil spills to higher health care costs due to air pollution and the massive costs

that will be imposed on current and future generation by global warming.  

There is a need to identify sustainable energy options for energy production without polluting the

environment.  The renewable energy source can  play  a major role for sustainable development.

Among  the  possible  renewable  energy  options  are  agricultural  and  forestry  residues  (generally

called biomass residues) which can be used as raw materials to generate energy (Encinar et al.,

1996).

1.2. Objectives

 The general objective is to convert wood residues to Pyrolytic bio oil at high temperature.   

The specific objectives are:

  ·  To  determine  the  time  and  quantity  of pyrolytic  oil  produced  during  pyrolysis  of  pure

      waste of Ceiba pentandra, melicia excelsa and mixture of Ceiba pentandra, and melicia

      excelsa at 450° C, 550° C and 650° C respectively.

  · To determine whether the yield from the mixture of the two species will be better than the

      yield from the pure species without mixture

  · To investigate the combustion and physical properties in the pyrolytic oil produced such

    as the pH, viscosity, density, flash point and proximate analysis.

1.3. Scope of the Study  

 The  scope  of  this  study  covers  the  pyrolytic  conversion  of  sawmill  wood  residues  of  two

different species which are melicia excelsa and Ceiba pentandra at 450° C, 550° C and 650° C to

                                            3

 liquid  bio-oil.  The characterization  of  the  wood  liquid  would  be  investigated  and  evaluation

would be made for the heating value of the feedstock.

1.4. Justification

There  have  been  studies  that  prove  the  many  benefits  of  substituting  fossil/traditional  fuels

(petroleum, etc) with biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. In its simplest sense, such biofuels

are  biodegradable  which  means  they  are  derived  from  organic  materials.  They  are  naturally

renewable.  It  can  create  numerous  jobs  since  our  own  farmers  can  practically  make  them

domestically.

Consequently, our reliance on fossil fuels will be significantly reduced. Moreover, these biofuels

emit non-toxic and cleaner emissions in comparison to traditional fuels. These alternative fuels

also  do  not  promote  global  warming,  since  the  carbon  they  emit  is  taken  back  to  the

environment.  Besides  global  production  of  biofuels  is  booming,  as  higher  oil  prices  and

technological breakthroughs have made it a more profitable business. The first generation biofuel

uses  wheat,  starch,  sugarcane,  rapeseed,  cassava,  among  other  as  feedstocks  in  production  of

biofuel and this had caused and reduced food shortage globally. In light  of this, saw dusts that

are  to  be regarded  as  waste  in  many  sawmill wood industries can  be  use  as alternative  to

agricultural  products  for producing biofeul  to  prevent  food insecurity  resulting from  the use of

agricultural products as biofeul.   

.

CHARACTERIZATION OF PYROLYTIC BIOFUEL PREPARED FROM BIOMASS OF Ceiba pentandra and Melicia excelsa



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