THE EFFECT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON SURFACE WATER QUALITY OF EKULU RIVER.


THE EFFECT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON SURFACE WATER QUALITY OF EKULU RIVER.

1.1 Background to the Study

Surface water is one of the main sources of water supply (NEST 1991), and it comprises of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, wetland and oceans (Nigeria Industrial Standard(NIS),2007). However, surface water has been adversely affected because of pollution from point and non-point sources. Surface water pollution occurs when harmful substances are released into water bodies and this could be through natural and artificial sources (Uchegbu,2002). Akaninwor et al., (2007) and Singh and Singh, (2012) pointed that surface water pollution is mostly experienced as a result of domestic waste water, surface run-off and industrial effluent discharge (Tsaghinia, et al., 2010) and their sources (NPDES,2008) are manufacturing commercial businesses, mining, agricultural production processing and effluent from clean-up of petroleum and chemical contaminated sites. Fellman et al.,(1995) reported that manufacturing companies in United Stars of America dumped polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into rivers. Industrial effluent contain heavy metals (Badmus et al.,2007) which may damage aquatic eco system, health of aquatic animals and those who eat them (The Guides Network,2008). Although not all of the effects of PCBs on surface waters and human health are known, they have been linked to birth defects, damage to immune system, liver disease and cancer (Fellman et al.,1995).

Surface water is uses in various ways such as drinking, commercial, agricultural, and industrial activities (Akan et al.,2009). Despite the importance of surface water in han life, it is the most poorly managed resources in the world (Fakayode,2005). The increase in demand for water for various uses arising from increase in global population and fast growth of industries around the world has put pressure on limited water resources (Norman and Michel, 2000, Phiri et al., and kedewa,2005 and NPDES,2008). The principal cause of water scarcity is water quality degradation, which critically reduce the quantity and quality of water Available for potable and agricultural and industrial uses (Norman and Michel,2000). Thus the quantity of available water is closely linked to the quality of water, which may limit its uses.

1.2 Problem Statement

There are several studies that confirmed the existence of surface water pollution at various levels in Nigeria (FEPA,1991,NEST,1991,Ezeigbo and Ezeanyim,1993, Nnodu and I'll,2000,Adekunle and Eniola,2008 and China et al.,2009), none of the studies made reference to effect of human activities on surface water quality of Ekulu river. Hence there is need to do so.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

Theajor objective of the study is the effect of han activities on surface water quality of Ekulu river. This is to be achieved through the following specific objectives:

(i) the physiochemical analysis of the surface water of the Ekulu river and

(ii) Microbiological examination of the surface water of the Ekulu river.

1.4 Research Question

1. What is surface water?

2. What is water quality?

3. What are the human activities around or on Ekulu river?

4. Why the need to determine the effect of human activities on surface water quality of Ekulu river?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study assess the effect of human activities on surface water quality of Ekulu river. The findings and recommendations of these research will enlighten us on which of the activities are detremental to the surface water quality of the river. The findings also shows the present level of the effect of human activities.

1.6 Scope of the study

The research focuses on the effect of human activities on surface water quality of the river.

 Refrences

Adekunle, AS. and Eniola, I.T.K. Impacts of industrial effluent on quality of segment of Asa River within an industrial estate in Ilorin, Nigeria NY Sci J. 2008 1(1) 17-21.

Akan, J.C., Abdulrahman, V.O., Ogbuaja and Reuben, K.D study of the physiochemical pollutants in kano industrial areas, kano star, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science in Environmental Sanitation,2009; 4(2)89-102.

Akaniwor, J.O., Anosike, E.O., and Egwim, O. Effects of Indomie industrial effluent discharge on microbial properties of new calabar River, Scientific Research and Essay 2007, 2(1): 001-005.

China, G.N., Ogbonna, C.E. and Nwankwo, I.U. Effects of Urban wastes on the quality of Asata River in Enugu south Eastern Nigeria, Global Journal of Environmental Sciences 2009,8(1): 31-39.

Ezeigbo H.I and Ezeanyim, B.N. Environmental pollution from coal.mining activities in Enugu Area. ananbra syae. Mine water and Environment, 1993; vol 12,53-62.

Fakayode,S.O. Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro river in Ibadan, Nigeria. AJEAM- RAGEE, 2005; vol. 10,1-3.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) National Environmental Protection (Effluent limitation) Regulation 1991,(S.1.8).

Fellman,J. Getus and Getus. Introduction to Human Geography Macmillan Publication; Company Inc, London,1995: 68-69.

National polkyrant Discharge Elimination System. Department of waste water management Tallahassee: Florida 2008.

Nigerian Industrial standard (NIS). Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos. 2007

Nnodu,V.C. and Ilo, I.C. Comparative study evaluation of sources of water supply in Enugu Urban, Environmental Review, 2000; vol3(1) 215-231.

Norman, E.P. and Mitchell M. Water quality degradation effects on fresh water availability. Impacts of human activities, international water resources association; Water International Journal, 2000; vol25(2) 185-193).

Phiri, O, Mumbai, P, Moyo, B.H.Z and kadewa, W. Assessment of the impacts of industrial effluents on water quality of receiving rivers in the urban areas of Malawi, international journal of Environmental Science Tecj.: Sept.2005; vol. 2 (3) 237-244.

Singh, S.R. and Singh, A.P. treatment of water containing chromium (VI) using Rice Husk Carbon as a new coast absorbent.

Taghania H. A. basaravajappa, H.T. and Qaid sawed, A.M. Heavy metal pollution in Kabiri Rivers Sediments, 4(4) 629-636.

The Guide Network. Fubra listed 2008.

Uchegbu, S.N. Environmental Management and Protection, Spotlight publisher Enugu, 2002.

 

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THE EFFECT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON SURFACE WATER QUALITY OF EKULU RIVER.



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