In Nigeria, a lot of efforts have been made by national and international bodies, voluntary organisations and individuals towards the effective promotion of mass literacy programmes. Indeed, many research studies have focused not only on its importance but as well on its sustainability which revolves around management. It is against this background that this study sought to evaluate the management of mass literacy prorgammes in Kogi State. The study evaluated the extent to which the management of mass literacy programmes carried out her functions in Kogi State. Subjects for the study were 61 administrative staff of state headquarter office, 116 staff from zonal offices of the programme, 292 facilitators, 1500 learners from 402 study centres in the State, and 21 Adult Education officers from the twenty one (21) local government areas. The sample for the study consisted the entire population of staff of headquarter, zonal offices, facilitators, Adult Education Officers and a random sample of learners. Seven research questions were posed and five hypotheses postulated to guide the study. Three instruments used for data collection were structured questionnaire (Mass Literacy Management Questionnaire (MLMQ)), observation checklist and Interview schedule. The three instruments were face validated by experts from department of Educational Foundations, Administration and Planning and Measurement and Evaluation units of University of Nigeria Nsukka. The reliability of the instruments was tested using Cronbach alpha method, which showed that the instrument was highly reliable. The data collected was analyzed using mean and t-test statistics. The result obtained revealed that planning and recruitment of grassroot personnel for the programmes were done by the management to a great extent. Available resources for the programmes were utilized to a great extent. Infrastructural and instructional materials available included classrooms, seats, reading materials, chalkboard and chalk. Major recommendation based on the findings of this study was that the Management should provide instructional materials and infrastructural facilities for greater performance of the functions of the Management. Implication of the study was that national and international bodies, philanthropist and individuals would become aware of the inadequacy of instructional materials and infrastructural facilities in Kogi State and come to the aid of the management and state.


Background of the Study

Education, which is officially perceived as an instrument “par excellence” for effecting National development is also an instrument for stability and change in any progressive society (Federal Republic of Nigeria 2004). According to the National Policy on Education and in line with the philosophy and goals of education in Nigeria, education fosters the worth and development of individuals and society in general. It is geared towards self- realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress. Ameh (2005) described education as a corner stone for development, that is, the basis for acquiring literacy, vocational skills, technological advancement and the ability to harness the natural resources of the environment. Ogbonnaya (2004) viewed education as an essential factor for political development and emancipation of the citizenry, an instrument for socializing people and preparing them for political positions. From the forgoing, it is clear that education broadens individuals’ horizon, develop their physical, intellectual, affective and social

abilities thereby equipping them to improve the welfare of the society and adequately utilize the natural and human resources available to them.

Realizing the importance of education to civilization and world economy, as well as the observed direct and mutual relationship between education and development, investments in qualitative and sustainable educational system became the priority of all nations (Damar 2003). Educational reforms were sought world-wide to ensure widened access so that every individual in the society is enabled to have basic education whatever the age, sex, religion and the status of the individual. In fact the concept of life-long education and Education for All (EFA) were programmes which emphasized wide access to education (Aderinoye 2005).

In Nigeria, a lot of efforts worthy of note were made by national and international bodies to improve access to education for all, among which were opening of primary schools and seminary colleges by the missionaries as early as between 1942 and 1946, introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1976, launching of National Literacy Day on September 8, 1992 to generate fund for the management of free primary education all of which culminated in the introduction of Mass Literacy Programmes. Mass Literacy Programmes deals with the provision of fundamental education including acquisition of reading, writing and numeracy skills which are to be applied for the

development of the individual and the community (National Mass Education Commission (NMEC) 2008). For the purpose of Mass Literacy, three educational programmes were adopted. These include basic literacy, functional literacy and remedial education. Basic literacy is designed to equip recipients with the skill of reading, writing and numeracy. Functional literacy aims at equipping participants with skills which they may exploit for livelihood. Remedial education as the name implies helps the individual to remedy past education deficiencies.

The target group for Mass Literacy programmes included:

⦁ Adults and adolescents (15years and above) who have never been to school and have not achieved the competences of reading, writing and numeracy skill.

⦁ Early school leavers who could not stay to achieve permanent literacy for effective work.

⦁ Adults/youths requiring rehabilitative education (including prision inmates) known as yandaba in the north, Area boys in the south-west and out of school boys in the South-East and South-South of Nigeria.

⦁ School age children and youths (6-14years) not enrolled in the formal school system. (National Mass Education Commission (NMEC 2008p3)).

To manage the programmes, the Federal Government established a management body known as National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education (NMEC), by degree No 17 of June, 1990.

The objectives of the National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non- Formal Education are as follows:

i. Provide functional literacy and continuing education for adults and youths who have never had the opportunity of going through formal education or completing primary education (it includes nomads, migrant families, disabled and disadvantaged gender).

ii. Provide functional and remedial education for those young people who did not complete secondary education.

iii. Provide in-service, on the job, vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skills.

iv. Give the adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment; and

v. Provide education for different categories of completers of formal school system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills on income generation activities like carpentry, tailoring, knitting, pomade and soap making and local craft. (NMEC, 2008p1)

To achieve the above objectives, the NMEC at the National level actively involved itself in carrying out the following functions as stipulated by decree No. 17 of June, 1990.

⦁ coordinate mass Literacy Adult and non-formal education programmes nationwide.

⦁ ensure uniform standards and quality control.

⦁ liaise with national, non-governmental organizations and corporate bodies for the implementation of Mass Literacy Programmes.

⦁ train the required man power for state agencies.

⦁ develop curricula and didactic materials for Mass Literacy as well as providing nationally recognized basic education certificate for the graduands of the programmes (FGN, 2004p27).

To complement the effort of the National management body (NMEC) in carrying out its functions, Mass Literacy Agency Board was established in the 36 states of the federation and Federal Capital Teritory whose functions include the following:

⦁ Implementing the national policy on Mass Literacy, Adult and non- formal education in the state.

⦁ Plan, research, organize, develop and manage Mass Literacy, adult and non-formal education programmes.

⦁ Monitor and ensure quality control of state Mass Literacy Programmes.

⦁ Set-up and supervise the activities of the literacy network committees in the state.

⦁ Liaise with non-governmental organizations in the state for the implementation of the Mass Education Programmes.

⦁ Train grass root personnel and

⦁ Provide support services for adult and non-formal education programmes including curriculum development, mobile and rural libraries, television, audio visual teaching and learning aids. (FGN, 2004:27).

The national, state and local government levels of Mass Literacy programmes work hand in hand as one complements the other in carrying out their functions for the achievement of the objectives of the programmes.

In Kogi State, Mass Literacy Agency Board was established by Law No. 10 of June, 1992. The Board is a parastatal of its own, having its headquarter office at Lokoja, twenty one (21) zonal offices, one in each local government headquarter and four hundred and two (402) literacy centers taught by facilitators. The literacy centres were for teaching and learning while zonal offices were the administrative centres for Mass Literacy Programmes in the local government. The programmes available in the state were basic literacy, functional literacy and remedial education. According to the Federal

Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education, the objectives of the State Agency/Board for Mass Education is as stated above.

The Local Government Council is not left out of the schedule of responsibilities as mentioned earlier hence the following are her functions:

⦁ Day-to-day control and administration of local mass Literacy and adult education programmes.

⦁ Recruitment of part-time facilitators and enrolment of learners for functional literacy and post literacy programmes.

⦁ Feedback to the state and Federal Ministry of Education in respect of curriculum and material development, techniques of teaching and evaluation procedures and the collection of data.

⦁ Ensuring that the literacy network committee at local government, district, village, ward and center levels are operated efficiently and effectively.

⦁ Provision of physical facilities for rural libraries, reading rooms, television viewing centres and radio listeners’ club (FRN, 2004).

In summary the state Mass Literacy and Adult Education Board was vested with the power as stipulated by the general policy guidelines for states to take responsibilities for the day-to-day affairs of the agency, year-to-year plans for the activities of the agency, give effect to the decisions of the board,

appoint, promote and exercise disciplinary control over the staff of the agency, keep proper account of the funds of the board and prepare in respect of each financial year, a statement of account of the agency as well as being responsible for auditing of the accounts. The board is equally responsible for making available infrastructural facilities and instructional materials. The instructional materials usually provided by Federal Government or donated by voluntary agencies such as UNDP, UNICEF, World Bank etc, are distributed to study centres by the state agency. The State Mass Literacy Board is also to ensure the utilization of the facilities available. These functions form the bench mark for the evaluation of the programmes.

To take responsibility for the day to day affairs and year to year plan of the agency, the management needed to plan and replan, researching into old plans and modernize it for use to suit the current status of the programmes in the State. The management holds the responsibility of giving effect to the decisions of the board in terms of appointment/recruitment, promotions, excersing disciplinary contol over the staff of the agency. Other functions as stipulated by Kogi State Law No 10 of 1992 includes proper keeping of account of the Agency and auditing of the accounts, provision of infrastructural and instructional materials and judicious utilization of them. Based on the stipulated functions above, the researcher evaluated the management’s skills of planning,

the extent of recruitment, the management skills in utilizing funds, extent of provision of infrastructural and instructional materials and utilization of them.

In addition, the headquarter staff, staff of zonal offices, facilitators and learners of Mass Literacy Programmes (MLP) who are the major actors in the success of the programmes have been briefly examined, but the significant difference existing between them in terms of their mean ratings process would equally be ascertained.

The management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State has very laudable and ambitious objectives as stated above but faced with a lot of challenges.It was reported by Momoh (1995) that the State Mass Literacy Board witnessed two strike actions within a decade between 1991 and 2000 due to non-payment of the facilitator’s allowances. It was also reported by Momoh (1995) that there were inadequate vehicles for monitoring of the programmes and that infrastructural facilities including office accommodation were lacking. As observed by the researcher, the headquarters office of the State Mass Literacy Board was hosted by a conventional secondary school (Government Science Secondary School, Lokoja) while emirs’ places, town halls/village squares, private houses and convectional primary schools were used as study centres. This chronic inadequacy of resources was not limited to Kogi State but other states as well. For instance, the study of Damar (2003) was clear on

inadequate supply of instructional materials and infrastructural facilities in Bauchi, Plateau and Nassarawa states. Infact, Nigeria education has been plagued by frequent strike actions, the fact of which may lie in its being poorly funded. In addition, it was observed by the researcher that majority of youths who were supposed to be engaged in the programmes loiter the streets in rural areas, the reason for which is unknown to the researcher. All the above add to the reason for evaluating the programmes.

A huge sum of money is required to successfully manage Mass Literacy Programmes. According to Oyedeji, Omolewa & Asiedu (1982), the attempt to turn more than 70% of the population into literate citizens requires a huge investment. They estimated the cost of literacy per participant in Nigeria, to be N43.00 as at 1982 which, in the present time of inflation should be about N10,

per participant. The breakdown of the above estimate was:

Staff salaries, (Instructors and supervisors) – N20.00 (1982), N 5,000 per participant, (2011). Cost of equipment and literacy materials – N13.00 (1982), N3, 250 (2011), Maintenance of Literacy class venues – N3.00 (1982), N750 (2011), Printing of record cards – N1.00 (1982), N250 (2011), General labour – N2.00 (1982), N500 (2011), Allowances for Administrators and Boardmembers

– N2.00 (1982), N500 (2011) and Contingency – N 2.00 (1982), N 500 (2011),

the total of which was N43.00 (1982), N10, 750 (2011). (Oyedeji, Omolewa & Aseidu 1992)

This huge sum of money was difficult to come by, but for the strategy of collaboration devised by National Mass Education Commission. The National Mass Education Commission collaborates with national and international organizations with the view to seeking their support technically, materially and in sharing instructional functions to achieve its objectives. Experts in literacy teaching through radio from socialist Republic of Cuba were in the country to train Nigerians in the technique involved in teaching literacy, using radio. These organizations have non-formal education as their mission.

As important as education is, without literacy, it is difficult to realize its full benefit because, as rightly put by Aderinoye (2005) literacy is a dynamic phenomenon having gone beyond the three ‘Rs of reading, writing and arithmetic. Quoting the motto adopted by the United Nations Literacy Decade “Literacy is described as the key to unlocking the cage of human misery, the key to delivering the potential of every human being, the key to opening up a future of freedom and hope.” Literacy is the skill of transmitting and receiving messages in an intelligible manner in written form.

Aderinoye (2005), is of the view that literacy should be able to answer the question of how well people read and write, how well they do what they are

challenged to do with the skills and how the skills can be manipulated and enhanced. Illiteracy on the other hand, is the inability to master the arts of reading and writing, thereby limiting the illiterate from wide expression of his ideas. Globally, Mass Literacy involves the training of all segments of the population (Male and female, young and old) as it is envisaged that the skills acquired from the programmes would make them more capable in their inter- personal relationship, vocations and help improve their socio-economic status.

In spite of the combined efforts of national, international, donor agencies, voluntary organizations and individuals to improve literacy rate in Nigeria, earlier researchers like Okoli (1990), Dagun (1998), Akpa (2000) and Aderinoye (2002), had discovered that there were many constraints to the implementation of Mass Literacy Programmes, many of which seems to point to the fact that the programmes is being poorly managed. Some of these constraints were inadequate funding, poor utilization of resources and inappropriate teaching methods to mention but a few.

Ogbonnaya (2009) defined management as a group or team of individuals in an organization while Mgbodile, (2003) sees management as a social process which is designed to ensure the cooperation, participation, intervention and involvement of others in the achievement of a given or predetermined objective. That means management has goals or objectives to achieve and to achieve its

goals or objectives, management functions have to be properly performed. Adesina (1990) defined management as the organization and mobilization of all human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives.

In line with the above definitions, Management as implied in this study is a social process designed for achievement of objectives through performance of its functions which in the case of management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State includes planning, provision of materials and human resources and the organization and coordination of them for achievement of objectives. The need to determine the extent to which the management of Mass Literacy Programmes in the state is performing its functions for the achievement of the goals of the programmes calls for an evaluation of the management processes employed and availability of human and material resources.

Evaluation is defined by Ali (2006) as a periodical monitoring of a programme or project to determine the extent to which it is achieving its stated objectives, or to identify any new directions needed to strengthen its operations. Okoro (2000) gave a simple definition of evaluation as a process of determining what actual educational outcomes are, compared to the expected outcomes. Evaluation of the management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State as is implied in this study is the the determination of the extent to which the

management of Mass Literacy Programme is performing its functions which include provision of human and material recourses and employment of management processes for achievement of objectives.

It is on the basis of the above background that the researcher determined the extent to which management functions as it relates to Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State are carried out for achievement of objectives.

Statement of the Problem

Mass Literacy Programme is considered by many educators as a laudable programme. The programme is basically designed to provide reading and writing as well as vocational skills for adults and young people who miss the opportunity of formal education in their formative years. Over the years, researchers in education worldwide have focused research activities on Mass Literacy Programmes, identifying ways and means of assessing it for its improvement because of its importance in National development. Research studies in this area have dealt with curricula issues and implementation processes, which showed that the programme is making progress.

In Kogi State there seem to be chronic inadequacy of resources- equipment, personnel and funds for implementation of Mass Literacy Programmes as noted by the Annual Report from Mass Literacy Board 1995.

.The report,  coupled with the  increasing number  of drop-outs loitering the

streets in rural areas, available few research studies in the area of evaluation of the management of the programmes in the state and the need to find ways of improving the programmes in the state necessitated this study. Therefore, the problem of this study posed as a question is, to what extent is the Management of Mass Literacy Programme carrying out her functions.

Purpose of Study

The Main purpose of this study was to evaluate the Management of Mass Literacy programmes in Kogi State. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the extent to which:-

1. plans were made by the management for Mass Literacy Programme in Kogi State.

2. grass root personnel were recruited for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State.

3. the financial management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State was in line with the blue print for Adult and Non-formal education in Nigeria.

4. infrastructural facilities were available for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State.

5. instructional materials were available for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State.

6. supervisory activities were carried out in Kogi State.

7. instructional materials available were utilized by the management of the programmes in Kogi State.

Significance of the Study

The study is important from both the theoretical and practical view. From the theoretical view, there is a growing concern about the need for effective management of human and material resources in educational institutions and equally is the concern for deteriorating trends in students’ interest and achievement in education. This study which evaluated the functions of management and hinged on CIPP (Content, Imput, Process and Product) model of evaluation has brought out results which showed the necessity for input and need for effectiveness in the processing of the input to bring about the desirable product - overall achievement of educational goals, thereby confirming the CIPP theory. The prediction that if there is no input and process, there couldn’t be product has been confirmed by this study as the success of the programmes revealed by this study is only to a great extent. It could have been to a very great extent if instructional and infrastructural facilities were provided in adequate quantity therefore has added to theoretical knowledge. From the practical point of view, it is hoped that different groups of people in the society

would benefit in a variety of ways from the result of this study as the subsequent recommendations are implemented.

Both national and international agencies concerned with Mass Literacy Programmes would become aware of the state of non-availability of some resources in the state and would come to the aid of the state. The data generated from this study would serve as reference materials to other researchers in education, who may wish to carryout research in the area of Mass Literacy. It could create awareness to the stakeholders at the national level on the extent to which the management of the programmes at the state level are performing their functions thereby creating room for them to give closer supervision and provide more for the needs of the state. The National Mass Education Commission would use the empirical data realized from the study in organizing seminars, workshops or conferences for the stake holders and instructors of the programmes. Also the students of the programmes would benefit from the improvement of the programmes resulting from its evaluation and subsequent recommendations as more instructional and insfrastructural facilities would be provided to enhance the understanding of their lessons. In addition more members of the society would be recruited thereby leading to reduction of unemployment in the state if the recommendations on the need for more

facilitators are implemented. Equally, the manpower produced by the programmes would be useful to the society.

Scope of the Study

The study was carried out in Kogi State, specifically, in Mass Literacy headquarter office, Lokoja, Mass Literacy zonal offices, four hundred and two

(402) study centres and twenty one (21) offices of local government Adult Educaion Officers. The study utlized Stufflebeam’s model of evaluation with four constructs which need to be considered in the evaluation of educational programmes. These four constructs are context, input, process and product. The present study involves the use of two of the constructs, input and process. Based on the management functions, the issues about this programmme which needed to be investigated are planning, recruitment of grassroot personnel, utilization of funds, availability of infrastructural facilities, availability of instructional materials and their utilization.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:-

1. To what extent are plans made for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State?

2. To what extent are grassroot personnel recruited for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State?

3. To what extent is the financial management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State in line with the Blue Print on Adult and Non- Formal Education in Nigeria?

4. To what extent are infrastructural facilities available for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State?

5. To what extent are instructional materials available for mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State?

6. To what extent are supervisory activities carried out by the management of Mass Literacy Programme in Kogi State?

7. To what extent are the instructional materials utilized by the management of Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State?


The following null Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

1. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the staff of headquarter office and the staff of zonal offices of Mass Literacy Programmes with regard to the extent to which plans were made for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State.

2. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the staff of headquarter and the staff of zonal offices of Mass Literacy Programmes with regard to the extent to which infrastructural facilities were available for Mass Literacy Programmes in Kogi State.

3. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the staff of headquarter office of Mass Literacy programmes and the facilitators of the programmes with regard to the extent to which instructional materials were available for the programmes in Kogi State.

4. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the staff of zonal offices of Mass Literacy Programmes and the facilitators with regard to the extent to which supervisory activities were carried out by the management of the programmes in Kogi State.

5. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the facilitators and the learners of Mass Literacy Programmes with regard to the extent to which instructional materials were utilized by the management of the programmes in Kogi State.





Researchwap.org is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.org guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.org is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.org" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.