USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE STUDENT CLEARANCE SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF NAITES NIGERIA)
It has been a difficult issues to the final year student of NAITES, when it comes to clearance, a process done by every passing out student to ensure that he or she has actually cleared the school and stand outstanding, with no charges or bills owing the school. Therefore, this research wok is design to help the school management and easy that process by developing an online clearances system for the school that will be capable of mining all the students information and payment details every mad and recorded in the students data. Therefore, the researcher will be employing one of the data mining techniques to enable this research wok scale through. Data mining remains the extraction of hidden predictive information from large database which helps in predicting future trend and behavior thereby helping management make knowledge driven decisions. With the help of data mining the system can tell if the student has actually finish his/her payment to the school or not and can decide on actions to be carried out. Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology were used in the analysis of the existing system which also provided a guide for the design of the proposed system. The designed software will serve as a more reliable and effective means of undertaking students clearance, remove all forms of delay and stress as well as enable you understand the procedures involved as well as how to do your clearance online. This project work made use of data collected from the University, materials and journals from various authors and software was developed to effectively achieve the aims of this project. In this project, the implementation of the computer-based system was carried out using PHP, CSS, APACHE and MYSQL for the database. In conclusion, the work met all the objectives intended. It is, however, recommended for use by all tertiary institutions. PHP programming language and my SQL was used in the creation of a data warehouse for student’s information and data mining tool for the retrieval of such information when needed.
Data mining, is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large database, is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in their data warehouses. Data mining tools predict future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge driven decisions. The automated, prospective analysis offered by data mining move beyond the analyses of past events provided by retrospective tools typical of decision support systems. Data mining tools can answer management questions that traditionally were too time consuming to resolve. The scour databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information those experts may miss because it lies outside their expectations.
Most companies already collect and refine massive quantities of data. Data mining techniques can be implemented rapidly on existing software and hardware platforms to enhance the value of existing information resources, and can be integrated with new products and system as they are brought on-line. Which implemented on high performance client/server or parallel processing computers, data mining tools can analyze massive database to deliver answers to questions such as “Which client are most likely to respond to my next promotional mailing, and Why?” and to educational sector, “Who, among the students is likely to gain the highest school or grade point” or “What is the AI of the best student in the school compare to the standard”.
Data mining techniques are result of a long process research and product development. This evolution began when management data was first stored on computers, continued with improvement in data access, and more recently, generated technologies that allow users to navigate through their data in real time. Data mining takes this evolutionary process beyond retrospective data access and navigation to prospective and proactive information delivery.
Data mining is ready for application in the business community (schools, company, industries, factory etc.) because it is supported by three technologies that are sufficiently mature: massive data collection, powerful multiprocessor computers and data mining algorithms. In this evolution from business data to business information, each new step has built upon the previous one. For example, dynamic data access is critical for drill-through in data navigation applications, and the ability to store large database is critical to data mining.
The file management is obsolete in developed countries like the United States where and in developing countries like Nigeria the file system is still processed manually in most educational centers; this is as a result of low standard of technology. It was clear that computer is everywhere in Nigeria. These computers are for money making and as a result of this, our schools lack computerized services, but with the help of data mining we can also computerize our school.
1.1 Background off Study
The internet has change the face of the world and make receiving and sending of information spread widely and easily, this can be done at the tips of peoples hand and without wasting any time. Compared to when internet has not evolved, before information could be received another end, it takes time depending on the distance of the journey.
According to (Adesanya, 2002). The Internet is a global collection of many types of computers and computer networks that are linked together. It is increasingly becoming the solution to many information, problems, information exchange, and marketing.
According to Awuzie (2013) Clearance is the process of determining and negotiating any permission that are needed to include the use of someone else’s intellectual property in creative project. Clearance systems for graduating students are vital incessant procedures and process in every University or high institution that is inevitable. The clearance must be carried out so as to check if the student is eligible to go for NYSC service and not owning the school anything. It is the University practice to carry out these processes at the completion of the last exam in school, where the student did not have any carryover left.
Online clearance system is a web base system which makes use of the internet. Nigerian Army Institute of Technology and Environmental Studies (NAITES) current method of clearance is not internet base which increase the stress of student going from school to school to sign the forms. The form given to student must be signed by the following; Dean of all school, University Liberian, Head of department, Sport official, Dean of student affair.
Thus the need of a web based clearance system for graduating student is inevitable to save the time and the cost of transportation from one location to another.
The term "clearance” is also sometimes used in private organizations that have a formal process to vet employees for access to sensitive information. A clearance by itself is normally not sufficient to gain access; the organization must determine that the cleared individual has a "need to know" the information. No one is supposed to be granted access to classified information solely because of rank or position, but once a clearance is obtained, access to certain information or gain of freedom will be granted.
As many universities have choosing to pursue the dynamic educational options available online. The advantages of e-learning are many. As people of all ages and backgrounds become increasingly reliant on the internet for information, online learning becomes more convenient and efficient here the need for an online clearance system. The skills needed to access and comprehend information online are becoming commonplace, and the flexibility of wireless computing means that any coffee shop, airport or bedroom can become a classroom. Online courses, registrations, clearance have few, if any scheduling restrictions, well-integrated learning resources and competitive degree options, with an online clearance system.
The changing online college landscape now includes online clearance system, traditional undergraduate and general studies programs. However, career learning is still the most popular online training option.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In NAITES, clearing of graduating students has always been a manual process. Effort has been made by the institution to replace the existing manual process with an automated clearance system for graduating student but to this day clearance is still a manual process. It is evident that the registration is incapable to totally replace the manual process of online clearance system for graduating student.
It is obvious that we are now in a technology era where science and technology applied to almost every aspect of life to make work faster, easier and efficient, coupled with the help of data mining techniques and tools. As an Institution of Technology it is our duty to lead the way into Science and Technology for other institution and organization to emulate by implementing automated systems that will replace all manual process within our school System.
More to that, the problem of data mining has become very crucial in areas of privacy of data. Specifically regarding the source of the data analyzed for certain purpose. My research in NAITES here reveals that students who come for clearance waste a lot of time. The students waits for the staff or the attendants to get their data and there are volumes of files to search through before the student files is finally retrieved.
The manual process of clearing student has a lot of limitation which include
i. The integrity of information is not fully guaranteed, as there is high risk of information getting to unauthorized or wrong hand that may manipulate the information illegally making the information inaccurate.
ii. In the absence of personnel in charge of any of the clearance form processes, the entire clearance registration process is delayed until such personnel is available
iii. Too much time is wasted before a student successfully completes his/her clearance registration form
iv. The manual process is only capable of attending to a limited number of student a day, hence students who are not attended to will, have to come back the next day until they successfully complete their clearance form registration.
1.3. Objective of the Study
Listed below are the objectives of this project work;
To identify issues associated with current process of clearing final year students in NAITES, Makurdi, Benue State Design a good data mining tool that will help in easy retrieval of student information thereby reducing time wastage and improve service delivery. The data mining tool will be able to discover hidden pattern in large volume of data which will help in good decision making. To design and implement an automated clearing system for NAITES, Makurdi, Benue State To effectively and efficiently process students clearance To provide a reliable and transparent system devoid of personal inclinations and interest To provide borderless access To ensure prompt clearance To alleviate the problems and stress of travelling and queuing up of students during clearance.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Online clearance system is basically design to save user information, facilitate the manipulation of data in a faster rate, provide concurrent access (access too many user at this time) to authorize users, and also ensure the integrity and accuracy of the information system store by the authorize users.
The online clearance system for graduating student will help to ease the student from queuing to have them cleared by the University.
It’s clear that advantages of Internet information processing over those of traditional manual system are higher yields. Online clearance system allows the users to check their clearance status as whether they are in any way indebted to the school, fill and submit their clearance form, and obtain their clearance letter. There are many other significance of the online clearance system and some of them are listed below.
It saves a lot of time
Information processing are very fast and delays can be avoided.
It is inexpensive to students and school management. Help the school in reducing costs such as labour and stationary.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The online clearance system for graduating student has been designed to manage the clearance process for graduating student of NAITES, Makurdi Benue State.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
For the purpose of this project, the service provided by the Online Clearance System For Graduating Students (OCSFGS) for the school.
Time constraints: Due to time constraint, the web – page developed covers only clearance from various departments by the graduating students.
Financial constraints: It would cost a lot to develop a full web – based clearance system.
1.7 Definition of Terms
OCSFGS: means Online Clearance System for Graduating Student.
Online: is the condition of being connected to a network of computer or other device.
Clearance: is the certification of blamelessness, trustworthiness, faithfulness or suitability. The definition by free dictionary.
System: an assembly of interrelated elements which we find interesting to study, it could be a process or machine.
Data Mining: Can be defined as “The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data, and “The science of extracting useful information from large data set or databases”. It involves sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information.
Graduating Student: is a student that has completed his/her 4 or 5 year course of study in the University.
Computer network: is a group of connected, communicating devices such as computers and printers.
Information Retrieval: The act of locating quantities of data stored in a Database and producing useful information from the data.
Internet: is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected networks.
Record: It is a unit of data representing a particular transaction or a basic element of a file consisting in turn a number of interrelated data elements.
Database: is a collection of data or file purpose to assist many users at the same time.
Database management system or DBMS: is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilizing large collections of database.
Artificial Intelligence: It is a branch of computer science that is dedicated to the study of the ways in which computers can be used to emulate or duplicate most human function.
Website: is a collection of web pages which have image and/or text for the purpose of passing information to the users.
Model: Is a pattern or mathematical/symbolic representation of real life System and or abstract system behaviors.
Server: is a process that provides requested services for clients.
Knowledge Base: Is an organized collection of declarative and procedural relationships that represents expertise in a focused area.