ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF IKOT EKPENE AND ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS, AKWA IBOM STATE)
This study was undertaken on Enhancing Organizational Effectiveness through manpower planning and development using Ikot Ekpene and Essien Udim Local Government Councils, Akwa Ibom State as case study. To achieve the intended objectives of the study survey design method was adopted. The researcher also used a convenient sampling technique to select a sample size of fifty (50) respondents from the population. Data for the study was from a self developed questionnaire of which the forms were personally administered. The data was analyzed with the use of frequency tables and chi-square statistical tool. Findings from the study revealed that the ways organizational effectiveness can be enhanced through manpower planning and development includes: Ability of employees to achieve goals and objectives in their organization based on their development and adequate planning and acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge and lastly utilization of available resources. The findings of the study also revealed that, short supply of instructors and improper findings, lopsided content in training programmes and lastly poor manpower planning and development are some of the problems associated with manpower planning and development in Nigeria organizations. Furthermore, from the findings the researcher recommended that management of the organizations should maintain adequate manpower planning and development for relevant skills and knowledge needed in order to enhance organizational effectiveness. Lastly, it was also recommended that, the problems such as: short supply of instructors and improper findings, lopsided content in training programmes and lastly poor manpower planning and development, associated with manpower planning and development in organizations need to be solved inorder to be appreciated in every organizations, therefore, the planning processes should be reviewed periodically by the management of the organizations inorder to determine the number and type of personnel needed for a particular job and when to employ.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Certificate - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - vii
List of tables - - - - - - - - viii
Table of contents - - - - - - - ix
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - 6
1.3 Objectives of the study - - - - - 7
1.4 Research questions - - - - - - 8
1.5 Statement of hypotheses - - - - - 9
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - - 10
1.7 Scope of the study - - - - - - 11
1.8 Limitations of the study - - - - - 11
1.9 Organization of the study - - - - - 12
1.10 Definition of terms - - - - - - 13
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The concept/meaning of manpower planning and development - - - - - - - 159
2.2 Approaches to manpower planning - - - 19
2.3 Tools of manpower planning - - - - 21
2.4 Manpower development - - - - - 23
2.5 Stages of manpower planning and development- 25
2.6 Factors affecting manpower planning and development- - - - 25
2.7 The Effects of Manpower Planning And Development in an Organization - - - - - - 27
2.8 Hindrances to achieving organization effectiveness through manpower planning in Nigeria - - 29 -
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 31
3.2 Population - - - - - - - 32
3.3 Sample and sampling techniques - - - 32
3.4 Instrumentation - - - - - - 33
3.5 Method for Data Analysis - - - - 34
3.6 Problems of data collection - - - - 36
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Analysis of Research question - - - - 37
4.2 Test of hypotheses - - - - - - 45
4.3 Discussion of findings - - - - - 59
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - 62
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 63
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 64
References - - - - - - - 66
Appendix - - - - - - - - 67 LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Sample Distribution - - - 32
Table 4.1.1: Response to Research question one - 37
Table 4.1.2: Response to Research question two - 40
Table 4.1.3: Responses to research question three 42
Table 4.1.4: Responses to research question four 44
Table 4.2.1A: Observed frequency for hypothesis I 46
Table 4.2.1B: Expected frequency for hypothesis I 47
Table 4.2.1C: Comparison of observed and expected -
frequency for hypothesis I - - 47
Table 4.2.2A: Observed frequency for hypothesis II 49
Table 4.2.2B: Expected frequency for hypothesis II 50
Table 4.2.2C: Comparison of observed and expected
Frequency for hypothesis II - - 51
Table 4.2.3A: Observed frequency for hypothesis III 53
Table 4.2.3B: Expected frequency for hypothesis III 54
Table 4.2.3C: Comparison of observed and expected frequency for hypothesis III- - - 55
Table 4.2.4A: Observed frequency for hypothesis IV 57
Table 4.2.4B: Expected frequency for hypothesis IV
Table 4.2.4C: Comparison of observed and expected
Frequency for hypothesis IV - - - CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Manpower planning and development is an integral part of management which focuses attention on human resources. It is a programme which involves projecting and forecasting present personnel functions into the future, it is also concerned with the mobilization of personnel department towards the achievement of the desired objectives in terms of effective manpower planning and development.
In every organization, planning and development exercise have crucial influence upon employees productivity which is the most vital objective of any organization. The clamour of manpower planning and development becomes very imperative because it is the personnel that will get this done. Suffice it so say that, public organization though: run on a loss or profit basis but have to compete with other organizations but only the best survives. In order to survive, these organizations must be effective and for it to be effective there is need for proper manpower planning and development.
Once an applicant has been selected and placed by his organization, the next step is to transform him to meet the future requirement of the organizations. Such transformation is done by means of training and development, for organizational goals and objectives to be attained; effective, proficient and adapt human resource is vital and imperative in every outfit. This is because human beings constitute a vital part of any organization, thus, act as a building blocks and backbones of any organizations. Resis (1993), affirmed that all activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons that make up these institutions. He said further, that the plants, computers, automated equipments and all other machines that a modern organization uses are unproductive except for human effort and direction, he therefore concluded that every aspect of a firm activity is determined by the competence and effectiveness of its human beings. Organizational effectiveness has a very broad and often vague definition, so much that most sources explain the concept by example rather than definition. Basically the effectiveness of a business constitutes its ability to perform a function with optimal levels of input and output, companies use organizational effectiveness to measure any number of things, from the relationship between the employees’ performance and company profit to the correlation between manufacturing processes and production volume. No set parameters exist for organizational effectiveness and it follows no definitive mathematical formula, each organization creates its own method of measuring effectiveness.
Man power planning begins with an analysis. It entails assessing the current status of the manpower within the organization. The analysis is done by taking an inventory of skills, competencies and abilities of all personnel in the organization. It also entails accounting for the numbers of department and the sizes of these departments within the organization. The analysis helps the Human Resources (HR) managers to make informed forecast about the human resource needs of the organization.
For Fajana (2002), the effectiveness and success of an organization lies on the people who form and work within the organization. The observation of Onuka (2006) implies that it is the developed human capital of the nation that constitutes its wealth. It follows, therefore, that employees’ performance in respect of achieving organizational goals and success is the function of the quantum of the relevant skills and knowledge, and positive work attitude they have been able to acquire from constant manpower development programmes whether through committee/ on the job training or in-house training programmes or out of work training courses they attended.
Omole (2004) posits that manpower development involves providing learning and development opportunities, making training and intervention and planning, conducting and evaluating training programmes. The need for improved productivity in an organization has become universally accepted phenomenon that depends on efficient and effective manpower development. It has further become necessary in view of modern global advancement, to invest in human capital training and development. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over emphasized, by implication, therefore, the for organizations to take staff development programmes in an organization often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence development programme. Orrbabor(2000) submits that training and development is aimed at developing competence such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organizational growths, while Isyaku (2000) postulates that the process of training and development is a continuous one.
Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavour makes staff development a necessity in order to keep track with current event and methods. The concept of manpower development encompasses organizational subsisting staff training and re-training programmes in order to meet up with organizational goals and objectives, as well as the sustaining human resource needs for organizational growth and development. The availability of human capital and its regular development must be combined with effective utilization of all other resource if they were not to be a mirage. Thus, manpower development in an organization is the main stay of an organization provided it is put to effective use.
Human resource is very critical to any organizational survival and accomplishment of the desired goals of any organization. However, it has been generally observed that there has been a progressive decline in the ability of the available manpower in Nigeria to cope with the challenges facing many organizations. This trend could be viewed to have resulted inadequate level of skill acquisition by the employees or their inability to keep abreast with the new modern technological development because of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training efforts by organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The disturbing issue in this research is on planning and administering manpower development in the way that organizational effectiveness could be enhanced. The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival and for the utilization of these available resources to achieve the desired goals.
However, most organizations plan meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resource and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will not be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes, the very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing function do so with lack of seriousness, all round attention and continuity.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the organizational effectiveness through manpower planning and development in the aspect of enhancing effective organizational planning and development in the aspect of enhancing effective organizational performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study intends to achieve the following objectives:
1. To examine how organizational effectiveness can be enhances through manpower planning and development.
2. To identify some techniques of manpower training and development that organizations can adopt for employees’ effectiveness.
3. To assess management commitment to staff development as a catalyst for their effectiveness.
4. To examine the problems associated with manpower planning and development in Nigeria organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to aid and guide this research study.
1. In what ways can organizational effectiveness be enhanced through manpower planning and development?
2. What are the possible techniques of manpower training and development that organizations can adopt for employees effectiveness?
3. How will management commitment to staff development be as a catalyst for their effectiveness?
4. What are the problems associated with manpower planning and development in Nigeria organizations?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
As a guide to achieve the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated.
1. Ho: Ability of employees to achieve goals and objectives in their organization is independent of their development and adequate planning.
Ha: Ability of employees to achieve goals and objectives in their organization is dependent of their development and adequate planning.
2. Ho: poor and ineffective techniques of manpower training and development that organizations adopt cannot affect employees effectiveness.
Ha: poor and ineffective techniques of manpower training and development that organizations adopt can effect employees effectiveness.
3. Ho: management’s timely approvals of staff training and development and constant seminars and conferences cannot save as catalyst for their effectiveness.
Ha: management’s timely approvals of staff training and development and constant seminars and conferences can save as catalyst for their effectiveness.
4. Ho: lopsided content in training programmes, short supply of instructors and improper funding are not problems associated with manpower planning and development in organizations.
Ha: lopsided content in training programmes, short supply of instructors and proper fundings are problems associated with manpower planning and development in organizations.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study shall be of immense benefit to the following set of persons:
1. Government parastatals: the result of this study shall assist government officials to see the need for effective manpower planning and development in government parastatals. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against government parastatals in achieving its set goals. By this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the organization and assess the suitability with the aim of developing planning programmes to enhance their performance.
2. Researchers: the result of this work will also serve as a guide to other researchers especially those who will be interested in the research of the related topic in the future.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on how to enhance organizational effectiveness through manpower planning and development, using Ikot Ekpene and Essien Udim Local Government Council as case study.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this research, the following constraint were met:
⦁ Limited funds which did not allow the researcher to carry out effective research
⦁ The unco-operative attitude of the respondents in answering questions
⦁ Limited time available for the research to focus on scope of study adequately
The study of this nature also demands a wider coverage in terms of study population but the use of Ikot Ekpene and Essien Udim Local Government Councils as a case study, also contributed to the limitations of the study.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study was organized in five chapters. Chapter one dealt on the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, organization of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter two reviewed the related literature on the subject matter which serves as a theoretical framework to the various ideas of the different researchers who have undertaken similar research work.
Chapter three showed the various research design and methodology used, for the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation, method for data analysis and problems of data collection are stated .
Chapter four showed the data presentation, analysis and interpretation analysis of research questions, test of hypotheses and discussion of findings.
Chapter five made summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation based on the findings of the study.
1.10 Definition of Terms
The following are some of the definitions of the terms used in context of this project work.
Manpower: manpower is defined as those efforts aimed at stimulating opportunities updating skills and adaptability of the workforce and linking jobs and persons more effectively.
Development: development is defined as a process which has to do with acquisition of skill through necessary training for proper job performance.
Management: Management is defined as a process of establishing and maintaining of favourable environment both for optimum achievement of goal and the minimum contribution of the individual.
Efficiency: The extent to which operative goals can be attained.
Organization: is an entry comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Effectiveness: The degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved.
Manpower Planning: Is defined as the process of collecting and analyzing of data pertaining to the number and kind of employees with required skills that an organization need at the right time and at the right place to perform jobs that are beneficial to the objective of the organization..