This research was to examine the influence on ensiling on the physical and chemical composition of Panicum Maximum with brewer spent grain the formulation were randomly assigned for diet. Diet1 was 100% Panicum Maximum only while diet2 was 90% Panicum Maximum with 10% BSG, diet3 80%, Panicum Maximum plus 20% BSG, diet4 70%, Panicum Maximum plus 30% BSG diet5  was 100% BSG and the treatment was 4 and 3 replicate, data were collected on physical characteristics, and chemical composition. The result revealed that at day 0, the result revealed that the highest dry matter was recorded on diet5 (P<0.05) while the lowest dry matter shows reflects on diet4. In crude protein significance different occur diet5 higher (P<0.05) BSG silage without mixtures, while the lowest record reflected on diet5 without inclusion of BSG (panicum silage) which shows crude value with increase (P<0.05). Ether extract shown 9.64 increase (P<0.05) on diet5 which was BSG only. And at  30%  of BSG to 70% of panicum silage the inclusion was 7.16 also at 20% of BSG to 80% panicum silage also recorded inclusion 7.82 while diet1 was 100% panicum silage  and was recorded lowest value which means there is and increase (P<0.05) of BSG in the feed. Ash recorded similar from diet1 to diet5 and crude fibre recorded similar in diet1 and diet2 while significance different occur diet5 with (P<0.05) decrease without the inclusion of panicum silage (BSG). And with the inclusion of BSG it shows numerical differences. NDF recorded increase NDF (P<0.05) in Panicum Maximum in diet1, also shown decreases of NDF content (P<0.05) of BSG on diet5 and was BSG alone without mixture of Panicum Maximum. So the result show decreases in NDF as the addition of BSG to Panicum Maximum. NDF recorded similar diet1 and diet5 also on diet3 and diet4 significances reflected on deit3 with (P<0.05) decrease of NDF on BSG with panicum maximum. ADF show significance different on diet1 (P<0.05).  Also show numerical different in values. And ADL reported significance different in diet1 with (P<0.05) decreases at inclusion of BSG Panicum Maximum while diet4 and diet5 reflected similar. The energy on day0 the energy from diet1 to diet5. At day28 the dry matter recorded similar on diet1 and diet2. Ash recorded similar from diet1 to diet4 while crude protein recorded similar value on diet2 and diet3 significance different occur diet4 and diet1. Ether extract recorded similar diet1 and diet4 also similar diet1 and diet2 also recorded similar diet3 and diet4 which show balance in the diet. NFE recorded significance different on diet3 which reflect 63.57 as highest content of NFE in feed while ADF recorded similar on diet2 and diet4 while diet1 and diet3 reflected similar. In ADL the significance different (P<0.05) reflected increases of ADL on diet2. The energy on day28 show similar diet1 and diet2. Also reflected similar on diet3 and diet4 which show balance of supplement on the feed. Also in this work all the parameter mentioned, was examined control physical and chemical composition including with Ph determination. These results revealed that supplement of forage with Agro-industrial by–product s such as brewers spent grain enhance utilization of forage and also improve on nitrogen available in the feed.


Declaration     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Certificate     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

Dedication     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

Abstract     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v


1.0    Introduction      -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    1

1.1    The Objective of this Research were     -    -    -    -    -    -    2


2.0    Literature Review    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    3

2.1    Guinea  Grass     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    3

2.2    Potential Constrains in Panicum Maximum     -    -    -    -    -    4

2.3     Description of Brewers Grains    -    -    -    -    -    -    5

2.3.1    Proximate Composition of BSG    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

2.3.2    Techniques for BSG Preservation and Storage     -    -    -    -    6

2.3.3    The Nutrition Value of Silage         -    -    -    -    -    -    7

2.3.4    Utilization     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    9

2.4    Characteristics of Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    10

2.4.1    Physical Characteristic of Good Silage     -    -    -    -    -    10

2.4.2    Chemical Characteristics of Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.5    Advantage of Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.6    Disadvantage of Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.7    Reaction in Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    12

2.8    Factors Influencing Silage Quality and Implication    -    -    -    -    12

2.9    Six Phase of Silage Fermentation and Storage     -    -    -    -    14

2.10    Evaluation of Silage     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    17


3.0    Experimental Site    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

3.1    Collection of Silage Materials        -    -    -    -    -    -    20

3.2    Diet Formation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

3.3    Proximate Analysis     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    20

3.4    The Determination of pH    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    21

3.5    Fiber Fraction Determination using Fibercap     -    -    -    -    21


4.1     Result and Discussion on  Physical Characteristic of Panicum Maximum

ensiled  with Brewer spent  Grains     -    -    -    -    -    -    22

4.2     Result and Discussion on  Chemical Composition of  Panicum Maximum 

ensiled with Brewer Spent Grains At Day0        -    -    -    -    23

4.3    Result and Discussion on  Chemical Composition of  Panicum Maximum 

ensiled with Brewer Spent Grains At Day28        -    -    -    -    25


Conclusion and Recommendation     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    27

References     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    28   


Table 1:    Chemical Composition of Panicum Maximum    -    -    -    4

Table 2:    Chemical Composition of Brewer Spent Grains and Nutritive value     ­-    9   

Table 3:    Chemical  Composition of Brewers’ Spent Grain (BSG) as

    Reported in the Literature     -    -    -    -    -    -    13

Table 4:    Physical Characteristics  of Panicum Maximum ensiled  with

Brewer Spent Grains         -    -    -    -    -    -    22

Table 5:    Chemical Composition of Panicum Maximum ensiled with

Brewer Spent Grains at Day 0        -    -    -    -    -    23

Table 6:    Chemical Composition of Panicum Maximum ensiled with

Brewer Spent Grains at Day 28    -    -    -    -    -    25



In modern dairy husbandry forage crop are harvested at a stage when yields and nutritional value are maximax, and are then preserved in order to ensure continuous and consistent forage supply throughout the year, and are then preserved in order to ensure continuous and consistent forage supply throughout the year. The major goal of preservation is to retain the original nutritional value of the feed at the highest value possible during storage in the food industry for human consumption many preservation method are available: cooling and freezing preservation by heat (blanching, pasturing, commercial sterilization, drying, modified atmospheres, picking and use of preservative (potter, 1978). For economical considerations and technical reasons many of these methods are not applicable for forage crop preservation, forage crops are preserved either by hay making (field drying) or by ensiling. Hay is preserved because of it low water content which restricts detrimental microbial activity. Hay making is restricted to “thin” crops which can dry quickly and uniformly, and to areas without rainfall during the harvesting season.

Silages are the materials produced by the controlled fermentation of a crop of high moisture content silage is the name given to the process and the container used is called the Silo. Almost any crop can be preserved as silage, Also crop residence like agro industrial by product (Brewer spent grains) can also be preserved as silage, although the commonest crops used are grasses, and legumes and whole cereals, especially Maize (Mc Donald P, et al., 1991).

According to Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fifty Editions, silage is defined as fodder prepared by compressing and   fermenting green forage crops under anaerobic conditions usually in a silo considering the real climate condition silage is the best method for preserving fresh forage with minimal losses. Silage quality and nutritional value are influenced by numerous biological factors, when the proper ensilage techniques are used silage will have a high nutritive value.

Ensiling is a preservation method for large masses moist crops. It is based on lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition whereby lactic acid bacteria (LAB) convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids, mainly to lactic acid. As a result the pH decreases and the moist crop is preserved. Air is detrimental to silage because it’s enable plant respiration and the activity of aerobic spoilage micro-organism such as yeast and moulds (Woolford, 1990). When air is still present between the plant particles and the pH is still high, 6.0-6.5. During this stage plant respiration continues, as well as proteolysis and the activity of aerobic micro-organism such as enterobacteria fungi and yeast. Fermentation stage occurs where there is a dynamic succession of lab which changes according to the condition prevailing in silage, starting with enterococei and leuconostoc. Followed by lactoballi and pediococci (Woolford, 1984). Lactic acid and other organic acid accumulate and the pH decreases, below 5.0 depending on plant composition and it buffering capacity.


1.    To assess the pH and physical characteristics of Panicum Maximum supplemented and ensiled with brewers spent grain.

2.    To evaluate the chemical composition of the Panicum Maximum.




RESEARCHWAP.ORG is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing