THE ROLE OF THE CBN IN ENSURING AFFORDABLE HOUSING FOR NIGERIANS


THE ROLE OF THE CBN IN ENSURING AFFORDABLE HOUSING FOR NIGERIANS   

 TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5    HYPOTHESIS

1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7    SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

LIMITATION OF STUDY

REFERENCES

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

1.0    INTRODUCTION

2.1 OVERVIEW OF HOUSING FINANCE ARRANGEMENTS IN

NIGERIA

2.2 Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN)

2.3 National Housing Trust Fund(NHTF)

2.4 FACTORS PREVENTING NIGERIANS FORM GETTING

AFFORDABLE HOUSES

2.5 Housing policy

REFERENCES

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.4 Instrument/Method of Data Collection

3.5 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

4.2 Answer to Research Questions

4.3 Research Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and 8th in the world, with a population of 173 million. Over the past decade the economy has been growing at an average rate of around seven percent yearly and, after Johannesburg, Lagos has the biggest, most liquid market in the region thereby creating the need for massive housing development.A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is a public institution that usually issues the currency, regulates the money supply, and controls the interest rates in a country. Central banks often also oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on printing the national currency, which usually serves as the nation's legal tender (Arthur and Sullivan, 2003). Example is the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The various roles of CBN will however in no doubt have specific impact on housing delivery in Nigeria.

According to Wikipedia.org, Central banks around the world play similar functions some of which may include- implementing monetary policies, determining Interest rates, controlling the nation's entire money supply, the Government's banker and the bankers' bank ("lender of last resort"), regulating and supervising the banking industry, setting the official interest rate – used to manage both inflation and the country's exchange rate– and ensuring that this rate takes effect via a variety of policy mechanisms and managing the country's foreign exchange and gold reserves and the Government's stock register.

Shelter is one of the basic necessities of life. Indeed, the housing sector plays avery critical role in a country’s prosperity as it directly affects not only the wellbeingof the citizenry but also the general performance of other sectors of theeconomy. Thus, provision of housing has, since the early 1970‟s, engaged theattention of most countries, especially the developing ones, for a number ofreasons. First, it is one of the three most important basic needs of mankind.Consequently, programmes of assistance in the areas of finance, provision ofinfrastructure and research have been designed by governments to enhanceadequate housing delivery. The focus on finance has, however, been veryprominent for the reason that, housing provision requires huge capital outlay,which is often beyond the capacity of most of the citizens (Akeju, 2007).

Increase in the rate of urbanization has exerted pressure on government and other government agencies like the Central Bank of Nigeria todevelop plans for housing development in Nigeria as a result of situation experienced in most cases that the demand forhousing units outweighs the supply. To address this gap, individuals, firms, andgovernment must intervene.

The first attempt at institutionalizing housing financing through the apex bank in Nigeria was theestablishment of the Nigerian Building Society (NBS) in 1956. Thereafter,regional governments set up housing corporations, savings and loans banksand cooperative banks through the supervision of the Central Bank of Nigeria to provide funds in the form of mortgage credit forhousing development (CBN, 2003). Following the Indigenization Act (1972) which aimed,amongst others, at promoting and transferring the ownership and control offoreign enterprises to Nigerians, the Nigerian Building Society, in 1977, wasrenamed and metamorphosed into the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria,(FMBN) to reflect the 100 per cent ownership of the Federal Government ofNigeria. Within two years of the establishment of the FMBN, its capital basewas increased from N20 million when it was bought over by government in1977 to N150 million in 1979, reflecting an increase of over 600 per cent. Thecurrent equity base of the FMBN is about N5 billion, with only 50 per cent of itpaid-up (CBN, 2011). Equity in the bank is split between the Federal Ministry of Finance(FMF) and the Central Bank of Nigeria, (CBN). In 1994, the FMBN was grantedthe status of the premier and apex mortgage institution in Nigeria under the supervision of the Central Bank of Nigeria. However, the researcher is analyzing the role of CBN in ensuring affordable housing for Nigerian citizens (CBN, 2007).

The Central Bank of Nigeria through the FMBN has encouraged the emergence and promotion of the growth of viableprimary mortgage institutions to service the need of housing delivery in allparts of Nigeria; mobilized both domestic and offshore funds into the housing sector; linked the capital market with the housing industry by establishing andoperating a viable secondary mortgage market to support the primarymortgage market; anddistributed the National Housing Fund (NHF) inaccordance with the provisions of the NHF Act” (CBN, 2011).

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of housing has become a daily discussion in all quarters of the public andprivate sector of the Nigeria economy and has prompt several government agencies to implements plans for housing development for both their staffs and the general public at affordable cost. It has become increasingly glaring thatmost of the urban population in Nigeria live in dehumanizing housing environment while those that haveaccess to average housing do so at abnormal cost. According to Onibokun (1986), Nubi(1991), rent in major cities of Nigeria is about 60% of an average workers disposable income.With the high cost of house building and the effort of government and its agencies that has been inadequate in the housing delivery, the researcher will analyze the role of CBN in ensuring affordable housing for Nigerians.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

1.    To examine the role of CBN in ensuring affordable housing for Nigerians.

2.    To ascertain the affordability of housing for Nigerians.

3.    To determine the factors preventing Nigerians from getting affordable houses.

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.    What is the role of CBN in ensuring affordable housing for Nigerians?

2.    What is the affordability of housing for Nigerians?

3.    What are the factors preventing Nigerians from getting affordable houses?

1.5    HYPOTHESIS

HO: CBN has not contributed to the provision of affordable housing for Nigerians.

HA: CBN has contributed to the provision of affordable housing for Nigerians.

1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

1.    The findings from this study will educate the general public on the roles that government agencies and Central Bank of Nigeria can play in the provision of affordable housing for Nigerians.

2.    This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.7    SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study on the role of the CBN in ensuring affordable housing for Nigerians will cover the contribution of the Central Bank of Nigeria towards sustainable housing development in Nigeria. It will also cover the overview of the services rendered by Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria FMBN which can be likened to a subsidiary of the CBN.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

2.    Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

3.    Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Akeju, A.A., (2007), “Challenges of Providing Affordable Housing in Nigeria” being a paper presented at the 2nd Emerging Urban Africa International Conference on Housing Finance in Nigeria.

Arthur, J and Sullivan, W (2013) “The Cross-Market Spillover of Economic Shocks through Multi-Market Banks” Accessed online at http//wwwfdic.gov/bank/analytical /cfr/2011/sept /BRC_2011_68_Berrospide.pdf.

CBN (2003) “Guidelines for Primary Mortgage Institutions”, Publication ofthe Other Financial Institutions Department Central Bank ofNigeria.

CBN (2011) “Revised Guidelines for Primary Mortgage Banks in Nigeria”

Central Bank of Nigeria (2007), The Financial System Strategy (FSS)2020

Nubi, T.O. (2002). Financing Low Income Housing in Nigeria Cities: Need for Paradigm Shi. Proceeding of the Faculty of Environmental Design Conference O.A.U. Ile Ife, 340 -345.

Onibokun, P. (1985). Housing in Nigeria. Ibadan University Press.

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THE ROLE OF THE CBN IN ENSURING AFFORDABLE HOUSING FOR NIGERIANS



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